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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE 18

CRIMES AND OFFENSES

 

PART I.  PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS

 

Chapter 1.  General Provisions

 

§ 101.  Short title of title.

§ 102.  Territorial applicability.

§ 103.  Definitions.

§ 104.  Purposes.

§ 105.  Principles of construction.

§ 106.  Classes of offenses.

§ 107.  Application of preliminary provisions.

§ 108.  Time limitations.

§ 109.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense.

§ 110.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for different offense.

§ 111.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution in another jurisdiction.

§ 112.  Former prosecution before court lacking jurisdiction or when fraudulently procured by the defendant.

 

Chapter 3.  Culpability

 

§ 301.  Requirement of voluntary act.

§ 302.  General requirements of culpability.

§ 303.  Causal relationship between conduct and result.

§ 304.  Ignorance or mistake.

§ 305.  Limitations on scope of culpability requirements.

§ 306.  Liability for conduct of another; complicity.

§ 307.  Liability of organizations and certain related persons.

§ 308.  Intoxication or drugged condition.

§ 309.  Duress.

§ 310.  Military orders.

§ 311.  Consent.

§ 312.  De minimis infractions.

§ 313.  Entrapment.

§ 314.  Guilty but mentally ill.

§ 315.  Insanity.

 

Chapter 5.  General Principles of Justification

 

§ 501.  Definitions.

§ 502.  Justification a defense.

§ 503.  Justification generally.

§ 504.  Execution of public duty.

§ 505.  Use of force in self-protection.

§ 506.  Use of force for the protection of other persons.

§ 507.  Use of force for the protection of property.

§ 508.  Use of force in law enforcement.

§ 509.  Use of force by persons with special responsibility for care, discipline or safety of others.

§ 510.  Justification in property crimes.

 

Chapter 7.  Responsibility (Reserved)

 

Chapter 9.  Inchoate Crimes

 

§ 901.  Criminal attempt.

§ 902.  Criminal solicitation.

§ 903.  Criminal conspiracy.

§ 904.  Incapacity, irresponsibility or immunity of party to solicitation or conspiracy.

§ 905.  Grading of criminal attempt, solicitation and conspiracy.

§ 906.  Multiple convictions of inchoate crimes barred.

§ 907.  Possessing instruments of crime.

§ 908.  Prohibited offensive weapons.

§ 908.1. Use or possession of electric or electronic incapacitation device.

§ 909.  Manufacture, distribution or possession of master keys for motor vehicles.

§ 910.  Manufacture, distribution, use or possession of devices for theft of telecommunications services.

§ 911.  Corrupt organizations.

§ 912.  Possession of weapon on school property.

§ 913.  Possession of firearm or other dangerous weapon in court facility.

 

Chapter 11.  Authorized Disposition of Offenders

 

§ 1101.  Fines.

§ 1102.  Sentence for murder, murder of unborn child and murder of law enforcement officer.

§ 1102.1. Sentence of persons under the age of 18 for murder, murder of an unborn child and murder of a law enforcement officer.

§ 1103.  Sentence of imprisonment for felony.

§ 1104.  Sentence of imprisonment for misdemeanors.

§ 1105.  Sentence of imprisonment for summary offenses.

§ 1106.  Restitution for injuries to person or property.

§ 1107.  Restitution for theft of timber.

§ 1107.1. Restitution for identity theft.

§ 1108.  District attorneys' standing and interest in prisoner litigation.

§ 1109.  Costs.

§ 1110.  Restitution for cleanup of clandestine laboratories.

 

Chapter 13.  Authority of Court in Sentencing (Transferred)

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions (Transferred)

 

§ 1301 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter B.  Sentencing Authority (Transferred)

 

§ 1311 & § 1312 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter C.  Sentencing Alternatives (Transferred)

 

§ 1321 - § 1326 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter D.  Informational Basis of Sentence (Transferred)

 

§ 1331 - § 1337 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter E.  Imposition of Sentence (Transferred)

 

§ 1351 - § 1362 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter F.  Further Judicial Action (Transferred)

 

§ 1371 & § 1372 (Transferred).

 

Subchapter G.  Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing (Repealed or Transferred)

 

§ 1381 - § 1385 (Repealed).

§ 1386 (Transferred).

 

PART II.  DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC OFFENSES

 

ARTICLE A.  OFFENSES AGAINST EXISTENCE OR

STABILITY OF GOVERNMENT

 

Chapter 21.  Offenses Against the Flag

 

§ 2101.  Display of flag at public meetings.

§ 2102.  Desecration of flag.

§ 2103.  Insults to national or Commonwealth flag.

 

ARTICLE B.  OFFENSES INVOLVING DANGER

TO THE PERSON

 

Chapter 23.  General Provisions

 

§ 2301.  Definitions.

 

Chapter 25.  Criminal Homicide

 

§ 2501.  Criminal homicide.

§ 2502.  Murder.

§ 2503.  Voluntary manslaughter.

§ 2504.  Involuntary manslaughter.

§ 2505.  Causing or aiding suicide.

§ 2506.  Drug delivery resulting in death.

§ 2507.  Criminal homicide of law enforcement officer.

 

Chapter 26.  Crimes Against Unborn Child

 

§ 2601.  Short title of chapter.

§ 2602.  Definitions.

§ 2603.  Criminal homicide of unborn child.

§ 2604.  Murder of unborn child.

§ 2605.  Voluntary manslaughter of unborn child.

§ 2606.  Aggravated assault of unborn child.

§ 2607.  Culpability.

§ 2608.  Nonliability and defenses.

§ 2609.  Construction.

 

Chapter 27.  Assault

 

§ 2701.  Simple assault.

§ 2702.  Aggravated assault.

§ 2702.1. Assault of law enforcement officer.

§ 2703.  Assault by prisoner.

§ 2703.1. Aggravated harassment by prisoner.

§ 2704.  Assault by life prisoner.

§ 2705.  Recklessly endangering another person.

§ 2706.  Terroristic threats.

§ 2707.  Propulsion of missiles into an occupied vehicle or onto a roadway.

§ 2707.1. Discharge of a firearm into an occupied structure.

§ 2707.2. Paintball guns and paintball markers.

§ 2708.  Use of tear or noxious gas in labor disputes.

§ 2709.  Harassment.

§ 2709.1. Stalking.

§ 2710.  Ethnic intimidation.

§ 2711.  Probable cause arrests in domestic violence cases.

§ 2712.  Assault on sports official.

§ 2713.  Neglect of care-dependent person.

§ 2714.  Unauthorized administration of intoxicant.

§ 2715.  Threat to use weapons of mass destruction.

§ 2716.  Weapons of mass destruction.

§ 2717.  Terrorism.

 

Chapter 29.  Kidnapping

 

§ 2901.  Kidnapping.

§ 2902.  Unlawful restraint.

§ 2903.  False imprisonment.

§ 2904.  Interference with custody of children.

§ 2905.  Interference with custody of committed persons.

§ 2906.  Criminal coercion.

§ 2907.  Disposition of ransom.

§ 2908.  Missing children.

§ 2909.  Concealment of whereabouts of a child.

§ 2910.  Luring a child into a motor vehicle or structure.

 

Chapter 30.  Human Trafficking

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 3001.  Definitions.

 

Subchapter B.  Prosecution of Human Trafficking

 

§ 3011.  Trafficking in individuals.

§ 3012.  Involuntary servitude.

§ 3013.  Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude.

§ 3014.  Unlawful conduct regarding documents.

§ 3015.  Nonpayment of wages.

§ 3016.  Obstruction of justice.

§ 3017.  Violation by business entities.

§ 3018.  Evidence and defenses to human trafficking.

§ 3019.  Victim protection during prosecution.

§ 3020.  Restitution.

§ 3021.  Asset forfeiture.

§ 3022.  Professional licenses.

§ 3023.  Cumulative remedies.

§ 3024.  Sentencing.

§ 3025.  Data collection.

 

Subchapter C.  Prevention of Human Trafficking

 

§ 3031.  Grants.

§ 3032.  (Reserved).

 

Subchapter D.  Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking

 

§ 3051.  Civil causes of action.

§ 3052.  Protection of victims.

§ 3053.  Appropriate implementation for minor victims of human trafficking.

§ 3054.  Services.

§ 3055.  Victims in shelters.

 

Subchapter E.  Miscellaneous Provisions

 

§ 3071.  Funding.

§ 3072.  Nonexclusivity.

 

Chapter 31.  Sexual Offenses

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 3101.  Definitions.

§ 3102.  Mistake as to age.

§ 3103.  Spouse relationships (Repealed).

§ 3104.  Evidence of victim's sexual conduct.

§ 3105.  Prompt complaint.

§ 3106.  Testimony of complainants.

§ 3107.  Resistance not required.

 

Subchapter B.  Definition of Offenses

 

§ 3121.  Rape.

§ 3122.  Statutory rape (Repealed).

§ 3122.1. Statutory sexual assault.

§ 3123.  Involuntary deviate sexual intercourse.

§ 3124.  Voluntary deviate sexual intercourse (Repealed).

§ 3124.1. Sexual assault.

§ 3124.2. Institutional sexual assault.

§ 3124.3. Sexual assault by sports official, volunteer or employee of nonprofit association.

§ 3125.  Aggravated indecent assault.

§ 3126.  Indecent assault.

§ 3127.  Indecent exposure.

§ 3128.  Spousal sexual assault (Repealed).

§ 3129.  Sexual intercourse with animal.

§ 3130.  Conduct relating to sex offenders.

§ 3131.  Unlawful dissemination of intimate image.

 

Subchapter C.  Loss of Property Rights

 

§ 3141.  General rule.

§ 3142.  Process and seizure.

§ 3143.  Custody of property.

§ 3144.  Disposal of property.

 

Chapter 32.  Abortion

 

§ 3201.  Short title of chapter.

§ 3202.  Legislative intent.

§ 3203.  Definitions.

§ 3204.  Medical consultation and judgment.

§ 3205.  Informed consent.

§ 3206.  Parental consent.

§ 3207.  Abortion facilities.

§ 3208.  Printed information.

§ 3208.1. Commonwealth interference prohibited.

§ 3209.  Spousal notice.

§ 3210.  Determination of gestational age.

§ 3211.  Abortion on unborn child of 24 or more weeks gestational age.

§ 3212.  Infanticide.

§ 3213.  Prohibited acts.

§ 3214.  Reporting.

§ 3215.  Publicly owned facilities; public officials and public funds.

§ 3216.  Fetal experimentation.

§ 3217.  Civil penalties.

§ 3218.  Criminal penalties.

§ 3219.  State Board of Medicine; State Board of Osteopathic Medicine.

§ 3220.  Construction.

 

ARTICLE C.  OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY

 

Chapter 33.  Arson, Criminal Mischief and Other Property Destruction

 

§ 3301.  Arson and related offenses.

§ 3302.  Causing or risking catastrophe.

§ 3303.  Failure to prevent catastrophe.

§ 3304.  Criminal mischief.

§ 3305.  Injuring or tampering with fire apparatus, hydrants, etc.

§ 3306.  Unauthorized use or opening of fire hydrants.

§ 3307.  Institutional vandalism.

§ 3308.  Additional fine for arson committed for profit.

§ 3309.  Agricultural vandalism.

§ 3310.  Agricultural crop destruction.

§ 3311.  Ecoterrorism.

§ 3312.  Destruction of a survey monument.

§ 3313.  Illegal dumping of methamphetamine waste.

 

Chapter 35.  Burglary and Other Criminal Intrusion

 

§ 3501.  Definitions.

§ 3502.  Burglary.

§ 3503.  Criminal trespass.

§ 3504.  Railroad protection, railroad vandalism and interference with transportation facilities.

 

Chapter 37.  Robbery

 

§ 3701.  Robbery.

§ 3702.  Robbery of motor vehicle.

 

Chapter 39.  Theft and Related Offenses

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 3901.  Definitions.

§ 3902.  Consolidation of theft offenses.

§ 3903.  Grading of theft offenses.

§ 3904.  Arrest without warrant.

 

Subchapter B.  Definition of Offenses

 

§ 3921.  Theft by unlawful taking or disposition.

§ 3922.  Theft by deception.

§ 3923.  Theft by extortion.

§ 3924.  Theft of property lost, mislaid, or delivered by mistake.

§ 3925.  Receiving stolen property.

§ 3926.  Theft of services.

§ 3927.  Theft by failure to make required disposition of funds received.

§ 3928.  Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

§ 3929.  Retail theft.

§ 3929.1. Library theft.

§ 3929.2. Unlawful possession of retail or library theft instruments.

§ 3929.3. Organized retail theft.

§ 3930.  Theft of trade secrets.

§ 3931.  Theft of unpublished dramas and musical compositions.

§ 3932.  Theft of leased property.

§ 3933.  Unlawful use of computer (Repealed).

§ 3934.  Theft from a motor vehicle.

 

Chapter 41.  Forgery and Fraudulent Practices

 

§ 4101.  Forgery.

§ 4102.  Simulating objects of antiquity, rarity, etc.

§ 4103.  Fraudulent destruction, removal or concealment of recordable instruments.

§ 4104.  Tampering with records or identification.

§ 4105.  Bad checks.

§ 4106.  Access device fraud.

§ 4106.1. Unlawful device-making equipment.

§ 4107.  Deceptive or fraudulent business practices.

§ 4107.1. Deception relating to kosher food products.

§ 4107.2. Deception relating to certification of minority business enterprise or women's business enterprise.

§ 4108.  Commercial bribery and breach of duty to act disinterestedly.

§ 4109.  Rigging publicly exhibited contest.

§ 4110.  Defrauding secured creditors.

§ 4111.  Fraud in insolvency.

§ 4112.  Receiving deposits in a failing financial institution.

§ 4113.  Misapplication of entrusted property and property of government or financial institutions.

§ 4114.  Securing execution of documents by deception.

§ 4115.  Falsely impersonating persons privately employed.

§ 4116.  Copying; recording devices.

§ 4116.1. Unlawful operation of recording device in motion picture theater.

§ 4117.  Insurance fraud.

§ 4118.  Washing vehicle titles.

§ 4119.  Trademark counterfeiting.

§ 4120.  Identity theft.

 

ARTICLE D.  OFFENSES AGAINST THE FAMILY

 

Chapter 43.  Offenses Against the Family

 

Subchapter A.  Definition of Offenses Generally

 

§ 4301.  Bigamy.

§ 4302.  Incest.

§ 4303.  Concealing death of child.

§ 4304.  Endangering welfare of children.

§ 4305.  Dealing in infant children.

§ 4306.  Newborn protection.

 

Subchapter B.  Nonsupport (Repealed)

 

§ 4321 - § 4324 (Repealed).

 

ARTICLE E.  OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC

ADMINISTRATION

 

Chapter 45.  General Provisions

 

§ 4501.  Definitions.

 

Chapter 47.  Bribery and Corrupt Influence

 

§ 4701.  Bribery in official and political matters.

§ 4702.  Threats and other improper influence in official and political matters.

§ 4703.  Retaliation for past official action.

 

Chapter 49.  Falsification and Intimidation

 

Subchapter A.  Perjury and Falsification in Official Matters

 

§ 4901.  Definition.

§ 4902.  Perjury.

§ 4903.  False swearing.

§ 4904.  Unsworn falsification to authorities.

§ 4905.  False alarms to agencies of public safety.

§ 4906.  False reports to law enforcement authorities.

§ 4906.1. False reports of child abuse.

§ 4907.  Tampering with witnesses and informants (Repealed).

§ 4908.  Retaliation against witness or informant (Repealed).

§ 4909.  Witness or informant taking bribe.

§ 4910.  Tampering with or fabricating physical evidence.

§ 4911.  Tampering with public records or information.

§ 4912.  Impersonating a public servant.

§ 4913.  Impersonating a notary public or a holder of a professional or occupational license.

§ 4914.  False identification to law enforcement authorities.

§ 4915.  Failure to comply with registration of sexual offenders requirements (Expired).

§ 4915.1. Failure to comply with registration requirements.

 

Subchapter B.  Victim and Witness Intimidation

 

§ 4951.  Definitions.

§ 4952.  Intimidation of witnesses or victims.

§ 4953.  Retaliation against witness, victim or party.

§ 4953.1. Retaliation against prosecutor or judicial official.

§ 4954.  Protective orders.

§ 4954.1. Notice on protective order.

§ 4955.  Violation of orders.

§ 4956.  Pretrial release.

§ 4957.  Protection of employment of crime victims, family members of victims and witnesses.

§ 4958.  Intimidation, retaliation or obstruction in child abuse cases.

 

Chapter 51.  Obstructing Governmental Operations

 

Subchapter A.  Definition of Offenses Generally

 

§ 5101.  Obstructing administration of law or other governmental function.

§ 5102.  Obstructing or impeding the administration of justice by picketing, etc.

§ 5103.  Unlawfully listening into deliberations of jury.

§ 5104.  Resisting arrest or other law enforcement.

§ 5104.1. Disarming law enforcement officer.

§ 5105.  Hindering apprehension or prosecution.

§ 5106.  Failure to report injuries by firearm or criminal act.

§ 5107.  Aiding consummation of crime.

§ 5108.  Compounding.

§ 5109.  Barratry.

§ 5110.  Contempt of General Assembly.

§ 5111.  Dealing in proceeds of unlawful activities.

§ 5112.  Obstructing emergency services.

 

Subchapter B.  Escape

 

§ 5121.  Escape.

§ 5122.  Weapons or implements for escape.

§ 5123.  Contraband.

§ 5124.  Default in required appearance.

§ 5125.  Absconding witness.

§ 5126.  Flight to avoid apprehension, trial or punishment.

 

Subchapter C.  Criminal Gangs

 

§ 5131.  Recruiting criminal gang members.

 

Chapter 53.  Abuse of Office

 

§ 5301.  Official oppression.

§ 5302.  Speculating or wagering on official action or information.

§ 5303.  Liability for reimbursement of costs for outside counsel.

 

ARTICLE F.  OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER

AND DECENCY

 

Chapter 55.  Riot, Disorderly Conduct and Related Offenses

 

§ 5501.  Riot.

§ 5502.  Failure of disorderly persons to disperse upon official order.

§ 5503.  Disorderly conduct.

§ 5504.  Harassment and stalking by communication or address (Repealed).

§ 5505.  Public drunkenness and similar misconduct.

§ 5506.  Loitering and prowling at night time.

§ 5507.  Obstructing highways and other public passages.

§ 5508.  Disrupting meetings and processions.

§ 5509.  Desecration, theft or sale of venerated objects.

§ 5510.  Abuse of corpse.

§ 5511.  Cruelty to animals.

§ 5511.1. Live animals as prizes prohibited.

§ 5511.2. Police animals.

§ 5511.3. Assault with a biological agent on animal, fowl or honey bees.

§ 5512.  Lotteries, etc.

§ 5513.  Gambling devices, gambling, etc.

§ 5514.  Pool selling and bookmaking.

§ 5515.  Prohibiting of paramilitary training.

§ 5516.  Facsimile weapons of mass destruction.

§ 5517.  Unauthorized school bus entry.

 

Chapter 57.  Wiretapping and Electronic Surveillance

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 5701.  Short title of chapter.

§ 5702.  Definitions.

 

Subchapter B.  Wire, Electronic or Oral Communication

 

§ 5703.  Interception, disclosure or use of wire, electronic or oral communications.

§ 5704.  Exceptions to prohibition of interception and disclosure of communications.

§ 5705.  Possession, sale, distribution, manufacture or advertisement of electronic, mechanical or other devices and telecommunication identification interception devices.

§ 5706.  Exceptions to prohibitions in possession, sale, distribution, manufacture or advertisement of electronic, mechanical or other devices.

§ 5707.  Seizure and forfeiture of electronic, mechanical or other devices.

§ 5708.  Order authorizing interception of wire, electronic or oral communications.

§ 5709.  Application for order.

§ 5710.  Grounds for entry of order.

§ 5711.  Privileged communications.

§ 5712.  Issuance of order and effect.

§ 5712.1. Target-specific orders.

§ 5713.  Emergency situations.

§ 5713.1. Emergency hostage and barricade situations.

§ 5714.  Recording of intercepted communications.

§ 5715.  Sealing of applications, orders and supporting papers.

§ 5716.  Service of inventory and inspection of intercepted communications.

§ 5717.  Investigative disclosure or use of contents of wire, electronic or oral communications or derivative evidence.

§ 5718.  Interception of communications relating to other offenses.

§ 5719.  Unlawful use or disclosure of existence of order concerning intercepted communication.

§ 5720.  Service of copy of order and application before disclosure of intercepted communication in trial hearing or proceeding.

§ 5721.  Suppression of contents of intercepted communication or derivative evidence (Repealed).

§ 5721.1. Evidentiary disclosure of contents of intercepted communication or derivative evidence.

§ 5722.  Report by issuing or denying judge.

§ 5723.  Annual reports and records of Attorney General and district attorneys.

§ 5724.  Training.

§ 5725.  Civil action for unlawful interception, disclosure or use of wire, electronic or oral communication.

§ 5726.  Action for removal from office or employment.

§ 5727.  Expiration (Repealed).

§ 5728.  Injunction against illegal interception.

 

Subchapter C.  Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access

 

§ 5741.  Unlawful access to stored communications.

§ 5742.  Disclosure of contents and records.

§ 5743.  Requirements for governmental access.

§ 5744.  Backup preservation.

§ 5745.  Delayed notice.

§ 5746.  Cost reimbursement.

§ 5747.  Civil action.

§ 5748.  Exclusivity of remedies.

§ 5749.  Retention of certain records.

 

Subchapter D.  Mobile Tracking Devices

 

§ 5761.  Mobile tracking devices.

 

Subchapter E.  Pen Registers, Trap and Trace Devices and Telecommunication Identification Interception Devices

 

§ 5771.  General prohibition on use of certain devices and exception.

§ 5772.  Application for an order for use of certain devices.

§ 5773.  Issuance of an order for use of certain devices.

§ 5774.  Assistance in installation and use of certain devices.

§ 5775.  Reports concerning certain devices.

 

Subchapter F.  Miscellaneous

 

§ 5781.  Expiration of chapter.

§ 5782.  Regulations.

 

Chapter 59.  Public Indecency

 

§ 5901.  Open lewdness.

§ 5902.  Prostitution and related offenses.

§ 5903.  Obscene and other sexual materials and performances.

§ 5904.  Public exhibition of insane or deformed person.

 

ARTICLE G.  MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES

 

Chapter 61.  Firearms and Other Dangerous Articles

 

Subchapter A.  Uniform Firearms Act

 

§ 6101.  Short title of subchapter.

§ 6102.  Definitions.

§ 6103.  Crimes committed with firearms.

§ 6104.  Evidence of intent.

§ 6105.  Persons not to possess, use, manufacture, control, sell or transfer firearms.

§ 6105.1. Restoration of firearm rights for offenses under prior laws of this Commonwealth.

§ 6106.  Firearms not to be carried without a license.

§ 6106.1. Carrying loaded weapons other than firearms.

§ 6107.  Prohibited conduct during emergency.

§ 6108.  Carrying firearms on public streets or public property in Philadelphia.

§ 6109.  Licenses.

§ 6110.  Persons to whom delivery shall not be made (Repealed).

§ 6110.1. Possession of firearm by minor.

§ 6110.2. Possession of firearm with altered manufacturer's number.

§ 6111.  Sale or transfer of firearms.

§ 6111.1. Pennsylvania State Police.

§ 6111.2. Firearm sales surcharge.

§ 6111.3. Firearm Records Check Fund.

§ 6111.4. Registration of firearms.

§ 6111.5. Rules and regulations.

§ 6112.  Retail dealer required to be licensed.

§ 6113.  Licensing of dealers.

§ 6114.  Judicial review.

§ 6115.  Loans on, or lending or giving firearms prohibited.

§ 6116.  False evidence of identity.

§ 6117.  Altering or obliterating marks of identification.

§ 6118.  Antique firearms.

§ 6119.  Violation penalty.

§ 6120.  Limitation on the regulation of firearms and ammunition.

§ 6121.  Certain bullets prohibited.

§ 6122.  Proof of license and exception.

§ 6123.  Waiver of disability or pardons.

§ 6124.  Administrative regulations.

§ 6125.  Distribution of uniform firearm laws and firearm safety brochures.

§ 6126.  Firearms Background Check Advisory Committee (Expired).

§ 6127.  Firearm tracing.

 

Subchapter B.  Firearms Generally

 

§ 6141.  Purchase of firearms in contiguous states (Repealed).

§ 6141.1. Purchase of rifles and shotguns outside this Commonwealth.

§ 6142.  Locking device for firearms.

 

Subchapter C.  Other Dangerous Articles

 

§ 6161.  Carrying explosives on conveyances.

§ 6162.  Shipping explosives.

 

Subchapter D.  Straw Purchase Prevention Education Program

 

§ 6181.  Scope of subchapter.

§ 6182.  Legislative findings and declarations.

§ 6183.  Definitions.

§ 6184.  Straw Purchase Prevention Education Program.

§ 6185.  Powers and duties of Attorney General.

§ 6186.  Straw Purchase Prevention Education Fund.

§ 6187.  Transfer for initial funding.

 

Chapter 63.  Minors

 

§ 6301.  Corruption of minors.

§ 6302.  Sale or lease of weapons and explosives.

§ 6303.  Sale of starter pistols.

§ 6304.  Sale and use of air rifles.

§ 6305.  Sale of tobacco.

§ 6306.  Furnishing cigarettes or cigarette papers (Repealed).

§ 6306.1. Use of tobacco in schools prohibited.

§ 6307.  Misrepresentation of age to secure liquor or malt or brewed beverages.

§ 6308.  Purchase, consumption, possession or transportation of liquor or malt or brewed beverages.

§ 6309.  Representing that minor is of age.

§ 6310.  Inducement of minors to buy liquor or malt or brewed beverages.

§ 6310.1. Selling or furnishing liquor or malt or brewed beverages to minors.

§ 6310.2. Manufacture or sale of false identification card.

§ 6310.3. Carrying a false identification card.

§ 6310.4. Restriction of operating privileges.

§ 6310.5. Predisposition evaluation.

§ 6310.6. Definitions.

§ 6310.7. Selling or furnishing nonalcoholic beverages to persons under 21 years of age.

§ 6311.  Tattooing and body piercing.

§ 6312.  Sexual abuse of children.

§ 6313.  Special information.

§ 6314.  Sentencing and penalties for trafficking drugs to minors.

§ 6315.  Selling or furnishing butane to minors.

§ 6316.  Selling or furnishing certain stimulants to minors.

§ 6317.  Drug-free school zones.

§ 6318.  Unlawful contact with minor.

§ 6319.  Solicitation of minors to traffic drugs.

§ 6320.  Sexual exploitation of children.

§ 6321.  Transmission of sexually explicit images by minor.

 

Chapter 65.  Nuisances

 

§ 6501.  Scattering rubbish.

§ 6502.  Refrigerators and iceboxes.

§ 6503.  Posting advertisements on property of another.

§ 6504.  Public nuisances.

§ 6505.  Discarding television sets and tubes.

 

Chapter 67.  Proprietary and Official Rights

 

§ 6701.  Wearing of uniforms and insignia.

§ 6702.  Sale of veterans' flowers.

§ 6703.  Dealing in military decorations.

§ 6704.  Fraud on association having grand lodge.

§ 6705.  Use of containers bearing owner's name (Repealed).

§ 6706.  Use or possession of stamped containers (Repealed).

§ 6707.  False registration of domestic animals.

§ 6708.  Retention of library property after notice to return.

§ 6709.  Use of union labels.

§ 6710.  Unauthorized use of registered insignia.

§ 6711.  Retention of military property after notice to return.

§ 6712.  Use of carts, cases, trays, baskets, boxes and other containers.

 

Chapter 69.  Public Utilities

 

§ 6901.  Extension of water line.

§ 6902.  Willful obstruction of emergency telephone calls.

§ 6903.  Railroad employee abandoning train.

§ 6904.  Interfering with railroad employee.

§ 6905.  Nails and other hard substances attached to utility poles.

§ 6906.  Erection of crossing signboards.

§ 6907.  Obstructing public crossings.

§ 6908.  Obstructing private crossings.

§ 6909.  Lights obstructing view of signals.

§ 6910.  Unauthorized sale or transfer of tickets.

 

Chapter 71.  Sports and Amusements

 

§ 7101.  Fraudulent entry of horses in race.

§ 7102.  Administering drugs to race horses.

§ 7103.  Horse racing.

§ 7104.  Fortune telling.

§ 7105.  Pool and billiard rooms.

§ 7106.  Theater operators to require proof of age.

§ 7107.  Unlawful actions by athlete agents.

 

Chapter 73.  Trade and Commerce

 

Subchapter A.  Definition of Offenses Generally

 

§ 7301.  Distribution of samples of medicine, dyes, etc.

§ 7302.  Sale and labeling of solidified alcohol.

§ 7303.  Sale or illegal use of certain solvents and noxious substances.

§ 7304.  Illegal sale or use of certain fire extinguishers.

§ 7305.  Sale of gasoline in glass container.

§ 7306.  Incendiary devices.

§ 7307.  Out-of-state convict made goods.

§ 7308.  Unlawful advertising of insurance business.

§ 7309.  Unlawful coercion in contracting insurance.

§ 7310.  Furnishing free insurance as inducement for purchases.

§ 7311.  Unlawful collection agency practices.

§ 7312.  Debt pooling.

§ 7313.  Buying or exchanging Federal food order coupons, stamps, authorization cards or access devices.

§ 7314.  Fraudulent traffic in food orders.

§ 7315.  Unauthorized disposition of donated food commodities.

§ 7316.  Keeping bucket-shop.

§ 7317.  Accessories in conduct of bucket-shop.

§ 7318.  Maintaining of premises in which bucket-shop operated.

§ 7319.  Bucket-shop contracts.

§ 7320.  Attaching advertisement without consent of publisher.

§ 7321.  Lie detector tests.

§ 7322.  Demanding property to secure employment.

§ 7323.  Discrimination on account of uniform.

§ 7324.  Unlawful sale of dissertations, theses and term papers.

§ 7325.  Discrimination on account of guide, signal or service dog or other aid animal.

§ 7326.  Disclosure of confidential tax information.

§ 7327.  Storage, consumption and sale of alcoholic beverages on unlicensed business premises.

§ 7328.  Operation of certain establishments prohibited without local option.

§ 7329.  Prohibition of certain types of entertainment on bottle club premises.

§ 7330.  Internet child pornography (Repealed).

§ 7331.  Unlicensed mortgage loan business.

 

Subchapter B.  Sunday Trading

 

§ 7361.  Worldly employment or business.

§ 7362.  Trading in motor vehicles and trailers (Repealed).

§ 7363.  Selling certain personal property.

§ 7364.  Selling or otherwise dealing in fresh meats, produce and groceries.

§ 7365.  Trading in motor vehicles and trailers.

 

Chapter 75.  Other Offenses

 

§ 7501.  Removal of mobile home to evade tax.

§ 7502.  Failure of mobile home court operator to make reports.

§ 7503.  Interest of certain architects and engineers in public work contracts.

§ 7504.  Appointment of special policemen.

§ 7505.  Violation of governmental rules regarding traffic.

§ 7506.  Violation of rules regarding conduct on Commonwealth property.

§ 7507.  Breach of privacy by using a psychological-stress evaluator, an audio-stress monitor or a similar device without consent.

§ 7507.1. Invasion of privacy.

§ 7508.  Drug trafficking sentencing and penalties.

§ 7508.1. Substance Abuse Education and Demand Reduction Fund.

§ 7508.2. Operation of methamphetamine laboratory.

§ 7509.  Furnishing drug-free urine.

§ 7510.  Municipal housing code avoidance.

§ 7511.  Control of alarm devices and automatic dialing devices.

§ 7512.  Criminal use of communication facility.

§ 7513.  Restriction on alcoholic beverages (Repealed).

§ 7514.  Operating a motor vehicle not equipped with ignition interlock (Repealed).

§ 7515.  Contingent compensation.

§ 7516.  Greyhound racing and simulcasting.

§ 7517.  Commemorative service demonstration activities.

 

Chapter 76.  Computer Offenses

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 7601.  Definitions.

§ 7602.  Jurisdiction.

§ 7603.  Restitution.

§ 7604.  Concurrent jurisdiction.

§ 7605.  Defense.

§ 7606.  Construction.

 

Subchapter B.  Hacking and Similar Offenses

 

§ 7611.  Unlawful use of computer and other computer crimes.

§ 7612.  Disruption of service.

§ 7613.  Computer theft.

§ 7614.  Unlawful duplication.

§ 7615.  Computer trespass.

§ 7616.  Distribution of computer virus.

 

Subchapter C.  Internet Child Pornography

 

§ 7621.  Definitions.

§ 7622.  Duty of Internet service provider.

§ 7623.  Protection of privacy.

§ 7624.  Penalty.

§ 7625.  Jurisdiction for prosecution.

§ 7626.  Application for order to remove or disable items.

§ 7627.  Order to remove or disable certain items from Internet service provider's service.

§ 7628.  Notification procedure.

§ 7629.  Designated agent.

§ 7630.  Report to General Assembly.

 

Subchapter D.  Unlawful Use of Computers

 

§ 7641.  Computer-assisted remote harvesting of animals.

 

Subchapter E.  Electronic Mail

 

§ 7661.  Unlawful transmission of electronic mail.

 

Chapter 77.  Vehicle Chop Shop and Illegally Obtained and Altered Property

 

§ 7701.  Definitions.

§ 7702.  Owning, operating or conducting a chop shop.

§ 7703.  Alteration or destruction of vehicle identification number.

§ 7704.  Disposition of vehicle or vehicle part with altered vehicle identification number.

§ 7705.  Exceptions.

§ 7706.  Presumptions.

§ 7707.  Loss of property rights to Commonwealth.

§ 7708.  Procedure with respect to seized property subject to liens and rights of lienholders.

 

PART III.  MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Chapter 91.  Criminal History Record Information

 

Subchapter A.  General Provisions

 

§ 9101.  Short title of chapter.

§ 9102.  Definitions.

§ 9103.  Applicability.

§ 9104.  Scope.

§ 9105.  Other criminal justice information.

§ 9106.  Information in central repository or automated systems.

 

Subchapter B.  Completeness and Accuracy

 

§ 9111.  Duties of criminal justice agencies.

§ 9112.  Mandatory fingerprinting.

§ 9113.  Disposition reporting by criminal justice agencies.

§ 9114.  Correction of inaccurate information.

 

Subchapter C.  Dissemination of Criminal History Record Information

 

§ 9121.  General regulations.

§ 9122.  Expungement.

§ 9123.  Juvenile records.

§ 9124.  Use of records by licensing agencies.

§ 9125.  Use of records for employment.

 

Subchapter D.  Security

 

§ 9131.  Security requirements for repositories.

 

Subchapter E.  Audit

 

§ 9141.  Audits.

§ 9142.  Quality control.

§ 9143.  Regulations.

 

Subchapter F.  Individual Right of Access and Review

 

§ 9151.  Right to access and review.

§ 9152.  Procedure.

§ 9153.  Individual rights on access and review.

 

Subchapter G.  Responsibility of Attorney General

 

§ 9161.  Duties of the Attorney General.

 

Subchapter H.  Public Notice

 

§ 9171.  Requirements of repositories relating to public notice.

 

Subchapter I.  Sanctions

 

§ 9181.  General administrative sanctions.

§ 9182.  Criminal penalties (Deleted by amendment).

§ 9183.  Civil actions.

 

Chapter 93.  Independent Counsel

 

Subchapter A.  Preliminary Provisions

 

§ 9301.  Short title of chapter.

§ 9302.  Definitions.

 

Subchapter B.  General Provisions

 

§ 9311.  Organization of panel.

§ 9312.  Preliminary investigation.

§ 9313.  Conduct of preliminary investigation.

§ 9314.  Determination that further investigation not warranted.

§ 9315.  Determination that further investigation is warranted.

§ 9316.  Contents of application.

§ 9317.  Disclosure of information.

§ 9318.  Limitation on judicial review.

§ 9319.  Duties of panel.

 

Subchapter C.  Authority and Duties of Independent Counsel

 

§ 9331.  Authorities.

§ 9332.  Compensation and travel expenses.

§ 9333.  Additional personnel.

§ 9334.  Assistance of Pennsylvania State Police.

§ 9335.  Referral of other matters to independent counsel.

§ 9336.  Dismissal of matters.

§ 9337.  Reports by independent counsel.

§ 9338.  Independence from Office of Attorney General.

§ 9339.  Standards of conduct applicable to independent counsel, persons serving in office of independent counsel and their law firms.

§ 9340.  Custody of records of independent counsel.

§ 9341.  Cost controls and administrative support.

§ 9342.  Legislative oversight.

§ 9343.  Removal of independent counsel and termination of office.

§ 9344.  Audits.

§ 9345.  Relationship with Office of Attorney General.

§ 9346.  Venue.

 

Subchapter D.  Miscellaneous Provisions

 

§ 9351.  Severability of chapter.

§ 9352.  Expiration of chapter.

 

Chapter 94.  Crime Victims

 

§ 9401.  Definitions.

§ 9402.  Office of Victim Advocate.

18c101h

 

 

TITLE 18

CRIMES AND OFFENSES

 

Part

   I.  Preliminary Provisions

  II.  Definition of Specific Offenses

 III.  Miscellaneous Provisions

 

Enactment.  Unless otherwise noted, the provisions of Title 18 were added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Special Provisions in Appendix.  See sections 2, 3 and 4 of Act 334 of 1972 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to offenses committed prior to the effective date of this title, severability and applicability of Statutory Construction Act.

 

 

PART I

PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS

 

Chapter

1.  General Provisions

3.  Culpability

5.  General Principles of Justification

7.  Responsibility (Reserved)

9.  Inchoate Crimes

  11.  Authorized Disposition of Offenders

  13.  Authority of Court in Sentencing (Transferred)

 

Enactment.  Part I was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

 

 

CHAPTER 1

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Sec.

101.  Short title of title.

102.  Territorial applicability.

103.  Definitions.

104.  Purposes.

105.  Principles of construction.

106.  Classes of offenses.

107.  Application of preliminary provisions.

108.  Time limitations.

109.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense.

110.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for different offense.

111.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution in another jurisdiction.

112.  Former prosecution before court lacking jurisdiction or when fraudulently procured by the defendant.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 1 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

18c101s

§ 101.  Short title of title.

This title shall be known and may be cited as the "Crimes Code."

18c102s

§ 102.  Territorial applicability.

(a)  General rule.--Except as otherwise provided in this section, a person may be convicted under the law of this Commonwealth of an offense committed by his own conduct or the conduct of another for which he is legally accountable if either:

(1)  the conduct which is an element of the offense or the result which is such an element occurs within this Commonwealth;

(2)  conduct occurring outside this Commonwealth is sufficient under the law of this Commonwealth to constitute an attempt to commit an offense within this Commonwealth;

(3)  conduct occurring outside this Commonwealth is sufficient under the law of this Commonwealth to constitute a conspiracy to commit an offense within this Commonwealth and an overt act in furtherance of such conspiracy occurs within this Commonwealth;

(4)  conduct occurring within this Commonwealth establishes complicity in the commission of, or an attempt, solicitation or conspiracy to commit, an offense in another jurisdiction which also is an offense under the law of this Commonwealth;

(5)  the offense consists of the omission to perform a legal duty imposed by the law of this Commonwealth with respect to domicile, residence or a relationship to a person, thing or transaction in this Commonwealth; or

(6)  the offense is based on a statute of this Commonwealth which expressly prohibits conduct outside this Commonwealth when the conduct bears a reasonable relation to a legitimate interest of this Commonwealth and the actor knows or should know that his conduct is likely to affect that interest.

(b)  Exception.--Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply when causing a particular result is an element of an offense and the result is caused by conduct occurring outside this Commonwealth which would not constitute an offense if the result had occurred there, unless the actor intentionally or knowingly caused the result within this Commonwealth.

(c)  Homicide.--When the offense is homicide or homicide of an unborn child, either the death of the victim, including an unborn child, or the bodily impact causing death constitutes a "result" within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, and if the body of a homicide victim, including an unborn child, is found within this Commonwealth, it is presumed that such result occurred within this Commonwealth.

(d)  Air space.--This Commonwealth includes the land and water and the air space above such land and water with respect to which the Commonwealth has legislative jurisdiction.

18c102v

(Oct. 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, eff. 180 days)

 

1997 Amendment.  Act 44 amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 102 is referred to in sections 910, 7602 of this title.

18c103s

§ 103.  Definitions.

Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent provisions of this title which are applicable to specific provisions of this part, the following words and phrases when used in this title shall have, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the meanings given to them in this section:

"Act" or "action."  A bodily movement whether voluntary or involuntary.

"Actor."  Includes, where relevant, a person guilty of an omission.

"Acted."  Includes, where relevant, "omitted to act."

"Cohabit."  To live together under the representation or appearance of being married.

"Conduct."  An action or omission and its accompanying state of mind, or, where relevant, a series of acts and omissions.

"Court."  Includes (when exercising criminal or quasi-criminal jurisdiction pursuant to 42 Pa.C.S. § 1515 (relating to jurisdiction and venue)) a magisterial district judge.

"Element of an offense."  Such conduct or such attendant circumstances or such a result of conduct as:

(1)  is included in the description of the forbidden conduct in the definition of the offense;

(2)  establishes the required kind of culpability;

(3)  negatives an excuse or justification for such conduct;

(4)  negatives a defense under the statute of limitation; or

(5)  establishes jurisdiction or venue.

"Fiduciary."  Includes trustee, guardian, executor, administrator, receiver and any person carrying on fiduciary functions on behalf of a corporation or other organization which is a fiduciary.

"Intentionally."  The meaning specified in section 302 of this title (relating to general requirements of culpability) and equivalent terms such as "with intent," "designed" or "with design" have the same meaning.

"Judge."  Includes (when exercising criminal or quasi-criminal jurisdiction pursuant to 42 Pa.C.S. § 1515 (relating to jurisdiction and venue)) a magisterial district judge.

"Knowingly."  The meaning specified in section 302 of this title (relating to general requirements of culpability) and equivalent terms such as "knowing" or "with knowledge" have the same meaning.

"Material element of an offense."  An element that does not relate exclusively to the statute of limitations, jurisdiction, venue or to any other matter similarly unconnected with:

(1)  the harm or evil incident to conduct, sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense; or

(2)  the existence of a justification or excuse for such conduct.

"Negligently."  The meaning specified in section 302 of this title (relating to general requirements of culpability) and equivalent terms such as "negligence" or "with negligence" have the same meaning.

"Omission."  A failure to act.

"Police officer."  The term shall include the sheriff of a county of the second class and deputy sheriffs of a county of the second class who have successfully completed the requirements under the act of June 18, 1974 (P.L.359, No.120), referred to as the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

"Purposely" or "with purpose."  Intentionally.

"Reasonably believes" or "reasonable belief."  A belief which the actor is not reckless or negligent in holding.

"Recklessly."  The meaning specified in section 302 of this title (relating to general requirements of culpability) and equivalent terms such as "recklessness" or "with recklessness" have the same meaning.

"Statute."  Includes the Constitution of Pennsylvania and a local law or ordinance of a political subdivision.

"Whoever."  Includes any person.

18c103v

(Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days; Nov. 22, 1995, P.L.621, No.66, eff. 60 days; Nov. 30, 2004, P.L.1618, No.207, eff. 60 days)

 

2004 Amendment.  Act 207 amended the defs. of "court" and "judge." See sections 28 and 29 of Act 207 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to applicability and construction of law.

1995 Amendment.  Act 66 added the def. of "police officer."

1978 Amendment.  Act 53 amended the intro. par. and added the defs. of "court" and "judge."

References in Text.  The act of June 18, 1974 (P.L.359, No.120), referred to as the Municipal Police Education and Training Law, referred to in the def. of "police officer," was repealed by the act of December 19, 1996, P.L.1158, No.177. The subject matter is now contained in Subchapter D of Chapter 21 of Title 53 (Municipalities Generally).

18c104s

§ 104.  Purposes.

The general purposes of this title are:

(1)  To forbid and prevent conduct that unjustifiably inflicts or threatens substantial harm to individual or public interest.

(2)  To safeguard conduct that is without fault from condemnation as criminal.

(3)  To safeguard offenders against excessive, disproportionate or arbitrary punishment.

(4)  To give fair warning of the nature of the conduct declared to constitute an offense, and of the sentences that may be imposed on conviction of an offense.

(5)  To differentiate on reasonable grounds between serious and minor offenses, and to differentiate among offenders with a view to a just individualization in their treatment.

18c105s

§ 105.  Principles of construction.

The provisions of this title shall be construed according to the fair import of their terms but when the language is susceptible of differing constructions it shall be interpreted to further the general purposes stated in this title and the special purposes of the particular provision involved. The discretionary powers conferred by this title shall be exercised in accordance with the criteria stated in this title and, in so far as such criteria are not decisive, to further the general purposes stated in this title.

18c106s

§ 106.  Classes of offenses.

(a)  General rule.--An offense defined by this title for which a sentence of death or of imprisonment is authorized constitutes a crime. The classes of crime are:

(1)  Murder of the first degree, of the second degree or of the third degree, first degree murder of an unborn child, second degree murder of an unborn child or third degree murder of an unborn child.

(2)  Felony of the first degree.

(3)  Felony of the second degree.

(4)  Felony of the third degree.

(5)  Misdemeanor of the first degree.

(6)  Misdemeanor of the second degree.

(7)  Misdemeanor of the third degree.

(b)  Classification of crimes.--

(1)  A crime is a murder of the first degree, of the second degree or of the third degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted of criminal homicide may be sentenced in accordance with the provisions of section 1102 (relating to sentence for murder and murder of an unborn child). A crime is first degree murder of an unborn child, second degree murder of an unborn child or third degree murder of an unborn child if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted of criminal homicide of an unborn child may be sentenced in accordance with the provisions of section 1102.

(2)  A crime is a felony of the first degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is more than ten years.

(3)  A crime is a felony of the second degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than ten years.

(4)  A crime is a felony of the third degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than seven years.

(5)  A crime declared to be a felony, without specification of degree, is of the third degree.

(6)  A crime is a misdemeanor of the first degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than five years.

(7)  A crime is a misdemeanor of the second degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than two years.

(8)  A crime is a misdemeanor of the third degree if it is so designated in this title or if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than one year.

(9)  A crime declared to be a misdemeanor, without specification of degree, is of the third degree.

(c)  Summary offenses.--An offense defined by this title constitutes a summary offense if:

(1)  it is so designated in this title, or in a statute other than this title; or

(2)  if a person convicted thereof may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, the maximum of which is not more than 90 days.

(d)  Other crimes.--Any offense declared by law to constitute a crime, without specification of the class thereof, is a misdemeanor of the second degree, if the maximum sentence does not make it a felony under this section.

(e)  Section applicable to other statutes.--An offense hereafter defined by any statute other than this title shall be classified as provided in this section.

18c106v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; Oct. 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, eff. 180 days)

 

1997 Amendment.  Act 44 amended subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1).

Cross References.  Section 106 is referred to in sections 305, 2710, 2717, 3311 of this title; sections 1725.3, 1725.5, 9762 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c107s

§ 107.  Application of preliminary provisions.

(a)  General rule.--The provisions of Part I of this title (relating to preliminary provisions) are applicable to offenses defined by this title or by any other statute.

(b)  Common law crimes abolished.--No conduct constitutes a crime unless it is a crime under this title or another statute of this Commonwealth.

(c)  Exceptions.--This section does not affect the power of a court to declare forfeitures or to punish for contempt or to employ any sanction authorized by law for the enforcement of an order or a civil judgment or decree, nor does it bar, suspend, or otherwise affect any right of liability to damages, penalty, forfeiture or other remedy authorized by law to be recovered or enforced in a civil action, regardless of whether the conduct involved in such civil action or matter constitutes an offense defined in this title.

18c108s

§ 108.  Time limitations.

(a)  General rule.--Except as set forth in subsection (b), a prosecution for any offense under this title must be commenced within the period, if any, limited by Chapter 55 of Title 42 (relating to limitation of time).

(b)  Offenses against unborn child.--

(1)  A prosecution for criminal homicide of an unborn child may be commenced at any time.

(2)  A prosecution for an offense under section 2606 (relating to aggravated assault of unborn child) must be commenced within five years after it is committed.

18c108v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; July 9, 1976, P.L.586, No.142; Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.83, No.38, eff. 60 days; Oct. 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, eff. 60 days; Oct. 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, eff. 180 days)

 

1980 Repeal Note.  Act 142 repealed Act 38 of 1978, which amended subsec. (a), prior to the effective date of the repeal of former section 108 by Act 142 of 1976.

1976 Amendment.  Act 142 added present section 108 and repealed former section 108, which related to the same subject matter, effective 60 days from the date of final enactment of the act of April 28, 1978 (P.L.202, No.53).

18c109s

§ 109.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense.

When a prosecution is for a violation of the same provision of the statutes and is based upon the same facts as a former prosecution, it is barred by such former prosecution under the following circumstances:

(1)  The former prosecution resulted in an acquittal. There is an acquittal if the prosecution resulted in a finding of not guilty by the trier of fact or in a determination that there was insufficient evidence to warrant a conviction. A finding of guilty of a lesser included offense is an acquittal of the greater inclusive offense, although the conviction is subsequently set aside.

(2)  The former prosecution was terminated, after the indictment had been found, by a final order or judgment for the defendant, which has not been set aside, reversed, or vacated and which necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact or a legal proposition that must be established for conviction of the offense.

(3)  The former prosecution resulted in a conviction. There is a conviction if the prosecution resulted in a judgment of conviction which has not been reversed or vacated, a verdict of guilty which has not been set aside and which is capable of supporting a judgment, or a plea of guilty accepted by the court. In the latter two cases failure to enter judgment must be for a reason other than a motion of the defendant.

(4)  The former prosecution was improperly terminated after the first witness was sworn but before a verdict, or after a plea of guilty was accepted by the court.

18c109v

 

Cross References.  Section 109 is referred to in sections 110, 111, 112 of this title.

18c110s

§ 110.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution for different offense.

Although a prosecution is for a violation of a different provision of the statutes than a former prosecution or is based on different facts, it is barred by such former prosecution under the following circumstances:

(1)  The former prosecution resulted in an acquittal or in a conviction as defined in section 109 of this title (relating to when prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense) and the subsequent prosecution is for:

(i)  any offense of which the defendant could have been convicted on the first prosecution;

(ii)  any offense based on the same conduct or arising from the same criminal episode, if such offense was known to the appropriate prosecuting officer at the time of the commencement of the first trial and occurred within the same judicial district as the former prosecution unless the court ordered a separate trial of the charge of such offense; or

(iii)  the same conduct, unless:

(A)  the offense of which the defendant was formerly convicted or acquitted and the offense for which he is subsequently prosecuted each requires proof of a fact not required by the other and the law defining each of such offenses is intended to prevent a substantially different harm or evil; or

(B)  the second offense was not consummated when the former trial began.

(2)  The former prosecution was terminated, after the indictment was found, by an acquittal or by a final order or judgment for the defendant which has not been set aside, reversed or vacated and which acquittal, final order or judgment necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact which must be established for conviction of the second offense.

(3)  The former prosecution was improperly terminated, as improper termination is defined in section 109 of this title (relating to when prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense) and the subsequent prosecution is for an offense of which the defendant could have been convicted had the former prosecution not been improperly terminated.

18c110v

(June 28, 2002, P.L.481, No.82, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 82 amended par. (1)(ii).

Cross References.  Section 110 is referred to in section 112 of this title.

18c111s

§ 111.  When prosecution barred by former prosecution in another jurisdiction.

When conduct constitutes an offense within the concurrent jurisdiction of this Commonwealth and of the United States or another state, a prosecution in any such other jurisdiction is a bar to a subsequent prosecution in this Commonwealth under the following circumstances:

(1)  The first prosecution resulted in an acquittal or in a conviction as defined in section 109 of this title (relating to when prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense) and the subsequent prosecution is based on the same conduct unless:

(i)  the offense of which the defendant was formerly convicted or acquitted and the offense for which he is subsequently prosecuted each requires proof of a fact not required by the other and the law defining each of such offenses is intended to prevent a substantially different harm or evil; or

(ii)  the second offense was not consummated when the former trial began.

(2)  The former prosecution was terminated, after the indictment was found, by an acquittal or by a final order or judgment for the defendant which has not been set aside, reversed or vacated and which acquittal, final order or judgment necessarily required a determination inconsistent with a fact which must be established for conviction of the offense of which the defendant is subsequently prosecuted.

18c111v

 

Cross References.  Section 111 is referred to in section 112 of this title.

18c112s

§ 112.  Former prosecution before court lacking jurisdiction or when fraudulently procured by the defendant.

A prosecution is not a bar within the meaning of section 109 of this title (relating to when prosecution barred by former prosecution for the same offense) through section 111 of this title (relating to when prosecution barred by former prosecution in another jurisdiction) under any of the following circumstances:

(1)  The former prosecution was before a court which lacked jurisdiction over the defendant or the offense.

(2)  The former prosecution was procured by the defendant without the knowledge of the appropriate prosecuting officer and with the purpose of avoiding the sentence which might otherwise be imposed.

(3)  The former prosecution resulted in a judgment of conviction which was held invalid in a subsequent proceeding on a writ of habeas corpus, coram nobis or similar process.

18c301h

 

 

CHAPTER 3

CULPABILITY

 

Sec.

301.  Requirement of voluntary act.

302.  General requirements of culpability.

303.  Causal relationship between conduct and result.

304.  Ignorance or mistake.

305.  Limitations on scope of culpability requirements.

306.  Liability for conduct of another; complicity.

307.  Liability of organizations and certain related persons.

308.  Intoxication or drugged condition.

309.  Duress.

310.  Military orders.

311.  Consent.

312.  De minimis infractions.

313.  Entrapment.

314.  Guilty but mentally ill.

315.  Insanity.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 3 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 3 is referred to in section 2607 of this title.

18c301s

§ 301.  Requirement of voluntary act.

(a)  General rule.--A person is not guilty of an offense unless his liability is based on conduct which includes a voluntary act or the omission to perform an act of which he is physically capable.

(b)  Omission as basis of liability.--Liability for the commission of an offense may not be based on an omission unaccompanied by action unless:

(1)  the omission is expressly made sufficient by the law defining the offense; or

(2)  a duty to perform the omitted act is otherwise imposed by law.

(c)  Possession as an act.--Possession is an act, within the meaning of this section, if the possessor knowingly procured or received the thing possessed or was aware of his control thereof for a sufficient period to have been able to terminate his possession.

18c301v

 

Cross References.  Section 301 is referred to in section 305 of this title.

18c302s

§ 302.  General requirements of culpability.

(a)  Minimum requirements of culpability.--Except as provided in section 305 of this title (relating to limitations on scope of culpability requirements), a person is not guilty of an offense unless he acted intentionally, knowingly, recklessly or negligently, as the law may require, with respect to each material element of the offense.

(b)  Kinds of culpability defined.--

(1)  A person acts intentionally with respect to a material element of an offense when:

(i)  if the element involves the nature of his conduct or a result thereof, it is his conscious object to engage in conduct of that nature or to cause such a result; and

(ii)  if the element involves the attendant circumstances, he is aware of the existence of such circumstances or he believes or hopes that they exist.

(2)  A person acts knowingly with respect to a material element of an offense when:

(i)  if the element involves the nature of his conduct or the attendant circumstances, he is aware that his conduct is of that nature or that such circumstances exist; and

(ii)  if the element involves a result of his conduct, he is aware that it is practically certain that his conduct will cause such a result.

(3)  A person acts recklessly with respect to a material element of an offense when he consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the material element exists or will result from his conduct. The risk must be of such a nature and degree that, considering the nature and intent of the actor's conduct and the circumstances known to him, its disregard involves a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a reasonable person would observe in the actor's situation.

(4)  A person acts negligently with respect to a material element of an offense when he should be aware of a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the material element exists or will result from his conduct. The risk must be of such a nature and degree that the actor's failure to perceive it, considering the nature and intent of his conduct and the circumstances known to him, involves a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would observe in the actor's situation.

(c)  Culpability required unless otherwise provided.--When the culpability sufficient to establish a material element of an offense is not prescribed by law, such element is established if a person acts intentionally, knowingly or recklessly with respect thereto.

(d)  Prescribed culpability requirement applies to all material elements.--When the law defining an offense prescribes the kind of culpability that is sufficient for the commission of an offense, without distinguishing among the material elements thereof, such provision shall apply to all the material elements of the offense, unless a contrary purpose plainly appears.

(e)  Substitutes for negligence, recklessness and knowledge.--When the law provides that negligence suffices to establish an element of an offense, such element also is established if a person acts intentionally or knowingly. When acting knowingly suffices to establish an element, such element also is established if a person acts intentionally.

(f)  Requirement of intent satisfied if intent is conditional.--When a particular intent is an element of an offense, the element is established although such intent is conditional, unless the condition negatives the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.

(g)  Requirement of willfulness satisfied by acting knowingly.--A requirement that an offense be committed willfully is satisfied if a person acts knowingly with respect to the material elements of the offense, unless a purpose to impose further requirements appears.

(h)  Culpability as to illegality of conduct.--Neither knowledge nor recklessness or negligence as to whether conduct constitutes an offense or as to the existence, meaning or application of the law determining the elements of an offense is an element of such offense, unless the definition of the offense or this title so provides.

18c302v

 

Cross References.  Section 302 is referred to in sections 103, 305 of this title; section 6303 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations).

18c303s

§ 303.  Causal relationship between conduct and result.

(a)  General rule.--Conduct is the cause of a result when:

(1)  it is an antecedent but for which the result in question would not have occurred; and

(2)  the relationship between the conduct and result satisfies any additional causal requirements imposed by this title or by the law defining the offense.

(b)  Divergence between result designed or contemplated and actual result.--When intentionally or knowingly causing a particular result is an element of an offense, the element is not established if the actual result is not within the intent or the contemplation of the actor unless:

(1)  the actual result differs from that designed or contemplated as the case may be, only in the respect that a different person or different property is injured or affected or that the injury or harm designed or contemplated would have been more serious or more extensive than that caused; or

(2)  the actual result involves the same kind of injury or harm as that designed or contemplated and is not too remote or accidental in its occurrence to have a bearing on the actor's liability or on the gravity of his offense.

(c)  Divergence between probable and actual result.--When recklessly or negligently causing a particular result is an element of an offense, the element is not established if the actual result is not within the risk of which the actor is aware or, in the case of negligence, of which he should be aware unless:

(1)  the actual result differs from the probable result only in the respect that a different person or different property is injured or affected or that the probable injury or harm would have been more serious or more extensive than that caused; or

(2)  the actual result involves the same kind of injury or harm as the probable result and is not too remote or accidental in its occurrence to have a bearing on the liability of the actor or on the gravity of his offense.

(d)  Absolute liability.--When causing a particular result is a material element of an offense for which absolute liability is imposed by law, the element is not established unless the actual result is a probable consequence of the conduct of the actor.

18c303v

 

Cross References.  Section 303 is referred to in section 2607 of this title.

18c304s

§ 304.  Ignorance or mistake.

Ignorance or mistake as to a matter of fact, for which there is reasonable explanation or excuse, is a defense if:

(1)  the ignorance or mistake negatives the intent, knowledge, belief, recklessness, or negligence required to establish a material element of the offense; or

(2)  the law provides that the state of mind established by such ignorance or mistake constitutes a defense.

18c305s

§ 305.  Limitations on scope of culpability requirements.

(a)  When culpability requirements are inapplicable to summary offenses and to offenses defined by other statutes.--The requirements of culpability prescribed by section 301 of this title (relating to requirement of voluntary act) and section 302 of this title (relating to general requirements of culpability) do not apply to:

(1)  summary offenses, unless the requirement involved is included in the definition of the offense or the court determines that its application is consistent with effective enforcement of the law defining the offense; or

(2)  offenses defined by statutes other than this title, in so far as a legislative purpose to impose absolute liability for such offenses or with respect to any material element thereof plainly appears.

(b)  Effect of absolute liability in reducing grade of offense to summary offense.--Notwithstanding any other provision of existing law and unless a subsequent statute otherwise provides:

(1)  when absolute liability is imposed with respect to any material element of an offense defined by a statute other than this title and a conviction is based upon such liability, the offense constitutes a summary offense; and

(2)  although absolute liability is imposed by law with respect to one or more of the material elements of an offense defined by a statute other than this title, the culpable commission of the offense may be charged and proved, in which event negligence with respect to such elements constitutes sufficient culpability and the classification of the offense and the sentence that may be imposed therefor upon conviction are determined by section 106 of this title (relating to classes of offenses) and Chapter 11 of this title (relating to authorized disposition of offenders).

18c305v

 

Cross References.  Section 305 is referred to in section 302 of this title.

18c306s

§ 306.  Liability for conduct of another; complicity.

(a)  General rule.--A person is guilty of an offense if it is committed by his own conduct or by the conduct of another person for which he is legally accountable, or both.

(b)  Conduct of another.--A person is legally accountable for the conduct of another person when:

(1)  acting with the kind of culpability that is sufficient for the commission of the offense, he causes an innocent or irresponsible person to engage in such conduct;

(2)  he is made accountable for the conduct of such other person by this title or by the law defining the offense; or

(3)  he is an accomplice of such other person in the commission of the offense.

(c)  Accomplice defined.--A person is an accomplice of another person in the commission of an offense if:

(1)  with the intent of promoting or facilitating the commission of the offense, he:

(i)  solicits such other person to commit it; or

(ii)  aids or agrees or attempts to aid such other person in planning or committing it; or

(2)  his conduct is expressly declared by law to establish his complicity.

(d)  Culpability of accomplice.--When causing a particular result is an element of an offense, an accomplice in the conduct causing such result is an accomplice in the commission of that offense, if he acts with the kind of culpability, if any, with respect to that result that is sufficient for the commission of the offense.

(e)  Status of actor.--In any prosecution for an offense in which criminal liability of the defendant is based upon the conduct of another person pursuant to this section, it is no defense that the offense in question, as defined, can be committed only by a particular class or classes of persons, and the defendant, not belonging to such class or classes, is for that reason legally incapable of committing the offense in an individual capacity.

(f)  Exceptions.--Unless otherwise provided by this title or by the law defining the offense, a person is not an accomplice in an offense committed by another person if:

(1)  he is a victim of that offense;

(2)  the offense is so defined that his conduct is inevitably incident to its commission; or

(3)  he terminates his complicity prior to the commission of the offense and:

(i)  wholly deprives it of effectiveness in the commission of the offense; or

(ii)  gives timely warning to the law enforcement authorities or otherwise makes proper effort to prevent the commission of the offense.

(g)  Prosecution of accomplice only.--An accomplice may be convicted on proof of the commission of the offense and of his complicity therein, though the person claimed to have committed the offense has not been prosecuted or convicted or has been convicted of a different offense or degree of offense or has an immunity to prosecution or conviction or has been acquitted.

18c306v

 

Cross References.  Section 306 is referred to in sections 904, 3218, 6111 of this title; section 9711 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c307s

§ 307.  Liability of organizations and certain related persons.

(a)  Corporations generally.--A corporation may be convicted of the commission of an offense if:

(1)  the offense is a summary offense or the offense is defined by a statute other than this title in which a legislative purpose to impose liability on corporations plainly appears and the conduct is performed by an agent of the corporation acting in behalf of the corporation within the scope of his office or employment, except that if the law defining the offense designates the agents for whose conduct the corporation is accountable or the circumstances under which it is accountable, such provisions shall apply;

(2)  the offense consists of an omission to discharge a specific duty of affirmative performance imposed on corporations by law; or

(3)  the commission of the offense was authorized, requested, commanded, performed or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting in behalf of the corporation within the scope of his office or employment.

(b)  Corporations, absolute liability.--When absolute liability is imposed for the commission of an offense, a legislative purpose to impose liability on a corporation shall be assumed, unless the contrary plainly appears.

(c)  Unincorporated associations.--An unincorporated association may be convicted of the commission of an offense if:

(1)  the offense is defined by a statute other than this title which expressly provides for the liability of such an association and the conduct is performed by an agent of the association acting in behalf of the association within the scope of his office or employment, except that if the law defining the offense designates the agents for whose conduct the association is accountable or the circumstances under which it is accountable, such provisions shall apply; or

(2)  the offense consists of an omission to discharge a specific duty of affirmative performance imposed on associations by law.

(d)  Defenses.--In any prosecution of a corporation or an unincorporated association for the commission of an offense included within the terms of paragraph (a)(1) or paragraph (c)(1) of this section, other than an offense for which absolute liability has been imposed, it shall be a defense if the defendant proves by a preponderance of evidence that the high managerial agent having supervisory responsibility over the subject matter of the offense employed due diligence to prevent its commission. This subsection shall not apply if it is plainly inconsistent with the legislative purpose in defining the particular offense.

(e)  Persons acting or under a duty to act for organizations.--

(1)  A person is legally accountable for any conduct he performs or causes to be performed in the name of a corporation or an unincorporated association or in its behalf to the same extent as if it were performed in his own name or behalf.

(2)  Whenever a duty to act is imposed by law upon a corporation or an unincorporated association, any agent of the corporation or association having primary responsibility for the discharge of the duty is legally accountable for a reckless omission to perform the required act to the same extent as if the duty were imposed by law directly upon himself.

(3)  When a person is convicted of an offense by reason of his legal accountability for the conduct of a corporation or an unincorporated association, he is subject to the sentence authorized by law when a natural person is convicted of an offense of the grade and the degree involved.

(f)  Definitions.--As used in this section the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Agent."  Any director, officer, servant, employee or other person authorized to act in behalf of the corporation or association and, in the case of an unincorporated association, a member of such association.

"Corporation."  Does not include an entity organized as or by a governmental agency for the execution of a governmental program.

"High managerial agent."  An officer of a corporation or an unincorporated association, or, in the case of a partnership, a partner, or any other agent of a corporation or association having duties of such responsibility that his conduct may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation or association.

18c307v

 

Cross References.  Section 307 is referred to in section 6305 of this title.

18c308s

§ 308.  Intoxication or drugged condition.

Neither voluntary intoxication nor voluntary drugged condition is a defense to a criminal charge, nor may evidence of such conditions be introduced to negative the element of intent of the offense, except that evidence of such intoxication or drugged condition of the defendant may be offered by the defendant whenever it is relevant to reduce murder from a higher degree to a lower degree of murder.

18c308v

(Apr. 7, 1976, P.L.72, No.32, eff. imd.)

18c309s

§ 309.  Duress.

(a)  General rule.--It is a defense that the actor engaged in the conduct charged to constitute an offense because he was coerced to do so by the use of, or a threat to use, unlawful force against his person or the person of another, which a person of reasonable firmness in his situation would have been unable to resist.

(b)  Exception.--The defense provided by subsection (a) of this section is unavailable if the actor recklessly placed himself in a situation in which it was probable that he would be subjected to duress. The defense is also unavailable if he was negligent in placing himself in such a situation, whenever negligence suffices to establish culpability for the offense charged.

18c309v

 

Cross References.  Section 309 is referred to in section 9711 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c310s

§ 310.  Military orders.

It is a defense that the actor, in engaging in the conduct charged to constitute an offense, does no more than execute an order of his superior in the armed services which he does not know and cannot reasonably be expected to know to be unlawful.

18c311s

§ 311.  Consent.

(a)  General rule.--The consent of the victim to conduct charged to constitute an offense or to the result thereof is a defense if such consent negatives an element of the offense or precludes the infliction of the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.

(b)  Consent to bodily injury.--When conduct is charged to constitute an offense because it causes or threatens bodily injury, consent to such conduct or to the infliction of such injury is a defense if:

(1)  the conduct and the injury are reasonably foreseeable hazards of joint participation in a lawful athletic contest or competitive sport; or

(2)  the consent establishes a justification for the conduct under Chapter 5 of this title (relating to general principles of justification).

(c)  Ineffective consent.--Unless otherwise provided by this title or by the law defining the offense, assent does not constitute consent if:

(1)  it is given by a person who is legally incapacitated to authorize the conduct charged to constitute the offense;

(2)  it is given by a person who by reason of youth, mental disease or defect or intoxication is manifestly unable or known by the actor to be unable to make a reasonable judgment as to the nature or harmfulness of the conduct charged to constitute the offense;

(3)  it is given by a person whose improvident consent is sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense; or

(4)  it is induced by force, duress or deception of a kind sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense.

18c311v

(Apr. 16, 1992, P.L.108, No.24, eff. 60 days)

 

1992 Amendment.  Act 24 amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 311 is referred to in section 2607 of this title.

18c312s

§ 312.  De minimis infractions.

(a)  General rule.--The court shall dismiss a prosecution if, having regard to the nature of the conduct charged to constitute an offense and the nature of the attendant circumstances, it finds that the conduct of the defendant:

(1)  was within a customary license or tolerance, neither expressly negatived by the person whose interest was infringed nor inconsistent with the purpose of the law defining the offense;

(2)  did not actually cause or threaten the harm or evil sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense or did so only to an extent too trivial to warrant the condemnation of conviction; or

(3)  presents such other extenuations that it cannot reasonably be regarded as envisaged by the General Assembly or other authority in forbidding the offense.

(b)  Written statement.--The court shall not dismiss a prosecution under this section without filing a written statement of its reasons, except that if the attorney for the Commonwealth is the moving party for such dismissal no such written statement need be filed.

18c312v

(June 22, 1978, P.L.494, No.73, eff. 60 days)

 

1978 Amendment.  Act 73 amended subsec. (b).

18c313s

§ 313.  Entrapment.

(a)  General rule.--A public law enforcement official or a person acting in cooperation with such an official perpetrates an entrapment if for the purpose of obtaining evidence of the commission of an offense, he induces or encourages another person to engage in conduct constituting such offense by either:

(1)  making knowingly false representations designed to induce the belief that such conduct is not prohibited; or

(2)  employing methods of persuasion or inducement which create a substantial risk that such an offense will be committed by persons other than those who are ready to commit it.

(b)  Burden of proof.--Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a person prosecuted for an offense shall be acquitted if he proves by a preponderance of evidence that his conduct occurred in response to an entrapment.

(c)  Exception.--The defense afforded by this section is unavailable when causing or threatening bodily injury is an element of the offense charged and the prosecution is based on conduct causing or threatening such injury to a person other than the person perpetrating the entrapment.

18c314s

§ 314.  Guilty but mentally ill.

(a)  General rule.--A person who timely offers a defense of insanity in accordance with the Rules of Criminal Procedure may be found "guilty but mentally ill" at trial if the trier of facts finds, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the person is guilty of an offense, was mentally ill at the time of the commission of the offense and was not legally insane at the time of the commission of the offense.

(b)  Plea of guilty but mentally ill.--A person who waives his right to trial may plead guilty but mentally ill. No plea of guilty but mentally ill may be accepted by the trial judge until he has examined all reports prepared pursuant to the Rules of Criminal Procedure, has held a hearing on the sole issue of the defendant's mental illness at which either party may present evidence and is satisfied that the defendant was mentally ill at the time of the offense to which the plea is entered. If the trial judge refuses to accept a plea of guilty but mentally ill, the defendant shall be permitted to withdraw his plea. A defendant whose plea is not accepted by the court shall be entitled to a jury trial, except that if a defendant subsequently waives his right to a jury trial, the judge who presided at the hearing on mental illness shall not preside at the trial.

(c)  Definitions.--For the purposes of this section and 42 Pa.C.S. § 9727 (relating to disposition of persons found guilty but mentally ill):

(1)  "Mentally ill."  One who as a result of mental disease or defect, lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate the wrongfulness of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law.

(2)  "Legal insanity."  At the time of the commission of the act, the defendant was laboring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong.

(d)  Common law M'Naghten's Rule preserved.--Nothing in this section shall be deemed to repeal or otherwise abrogate the common law defense of insanity (M'Naghten's Rule) in effect in this Commonwealth on the effective date of this section.

18c314v

(Dec. 15, 1982, P.L.1262, No.286, eff. 90 days)

 

1982 Amendment.  Act 286 added section 314. Section 4 of Act 286 provided that Act 286 shall apply to all indictments or informations filed on or after the effective date of Act 286.

Cross References.  Section 314 is referred to in section 9727 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c315s

§ 315.  Insanity.

(a)  General rule.--The mental soundness of an actor engaged in conduct charged to constitute an offense shall only be a defense to the charged offense when the actor proves by a preponderance of evidence that the actor was legally insane at the time of the commission of the offense.

(b)  Definition.--For purposes of this section, the phrase "legally insane" means that, at the time of the commission of the offense, the actor was laboring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing or, if the actor did know the quality of the act, that he did not know that what he was doing was wrong.

18c315v

(Dec. 15, 1982, P.L.1262, No.286, eff. 90 days)

 

1982 Amendment.  Act 286 added section 315. Section 4 of Act 286 provided that Act 286 shall apply to all indictments or informations filed on or after the effective date of Act 286.

18c501h

 

 

CHAPTER 5

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF JUSTIFICATION

 

Sec.

501.  Definitions.

502.  Justification a defense.

503.  Justification generally.

504.  Execution of public duty.

505.  Use of force in self-protection.

506.  Use of force for the protection of other persons.

507.  Use of force for the protection of property.

508.  Use of force in law enforcement.

509.  Use of force by persons with special responsibility for      care, discipline or safety of others.

510.  Justification in property crimes.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 5 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 5 is referred to in sections 311, 908.1, 2503, 2507, 2605, 2608 of this title; section 711 of Title 51 (Military Affairs).

18c501s

§ 501.  Definitions.

Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent provisions of this chapter which are applicable to specific provisions of this chapter, the following words and phrases, when used in this chapter shall have, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the meanings given to them in this section:

"Believes" or "belief."  Means "reasonably believes" or "reasonable belief."

"Correctional institution."  Any penal institution, penitentiary, State farm, reformatory, prison, jail, house of correction, or other institution for the incarceration or custody of persons under sentence for offenses or awaiting trial or sentence for offenses.

"Corrections officer."  A full-time employee assigned to the Department of Corrections whose principal duty is the care, custody and control of inmates of a penal or correctional institution operated by the Department of Corrections.

"Deadly force."  Force which, under the circumstances in which it is used, is readily capable of causing death or serious bodily injury.

"Dwelling."  Any building or structure, including any attached porch, deck or patio, though movable or temporary, or a portion thereof, which is for the time being the home or place of lodging of the actor.

"Peace officer."  Any person who by virtue of his office or public employment is vested by law with a duty to maintain public order or to make arrests for offenses, whether that duty extends to all offenses or is limited to specific offenses, or any person on active State duty pursuant to 51 Pa.C.S. § 508 (relating to active duty for emergency). The term "peace officer" shall also include any member of any park police department of any county of the third class.

"Residence."  A dwelling in which a person resides, either temporarily or permanently, or visits as an invited guest.

"Unlawful force."  Force, including confinement, which is employed without the consent of the person against whom it is directed and the employment of which constitutes an offense or actionable tort or would constitute such offense or tort except for a defense (such as the absence of intent, negligence, or mental capacity; duress; youth; or diplomatic status) not amounting to a privilege to use the force. Assent constitutes consent, within the meaning of this section, whether or not it otherwise is legally effective, except assent to the infliction of death or serious bodily injury.

"Vehicle."  A conveyance of any kind, whether or not motorized, that is designed to transport people or property.

18c501v

(July 6, 1984, P.L.647, No.134, eff. 90 days; July 17, 2007, P.L.139, No.41, eff. 60 days; June 28, 2011, P.L.48, No.10, eff. 60 days)

 

2011 Amendment.  See the preamble to Act 10 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to legislative findings.

Cross References.  Section 501 is referred to in sections 2507, 2702.1 of this title; section 9719.1 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c502s

§ 502.  Justification a defense.

In any prosecution based on conduct which is justifiable under this chapter, justification is a defense.

18c503s

§ 503.  Justification generally.

(a)  General rule.--Conduct which the actor believes to be necessary to avoid a harm or evil to himself or to another is justifiable if:

(1)  the harm or evil sought to be avoided by such conduct is greater than that sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense charged;

(2)  neither this title nor other law defining the offense provides exceptions or defenses dealing with the specific situation involved; and

(3)  a legislative purpose to exclude the justification claimed does not otherwise plainly appear.

(b)  Choice of evils.--When the actor was reckless or negligent in bringing about the situation requiring a choice of harms or evils or in appraising the necessity for his conduct, the justification afforded by this section is unavailable in a prosecution for any offense for which recklessness or negligence, as the case may be, suffices to establish culpability.

18c504s

§ 504.  Execution of public duty.

(a)  General rule.--Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, conduct is justifiable when it is required or authorized by any law of the following:

(1)  The law defining the duties or functions of a public officer or the assistance to be rendered to such officer in the performance of his duties.

(2)  The law governing the execution of legal process.

(3)  The judgment or order of a competent court or tribunal.

(4)  The law governing the armed services or the lawful conduct of war.

(5)  Any other provision of law imposing a public duty.

(b)  Exceptions.--The other sections of this chapter apply to:

(1)  The use of force upon or toward the person of another for any of the purposes dealt with in such sections.

(2)  The use of deadly force for any purpose, unless the use of such force is otherwise expressly authorized by law or occurs in the lawful conduct of war.

(c)  Requisite state of mind.--The justification afforded by subsection (a) of this section applies:

(1)  when the actor believes his conduct to be required or authorized by the judgment or direction of a competent court or tribunal or in the lawful execution of legal process, notwithstanding lack of jurisdiction of the court or defect in the legal process; and

(2)  when the actor believes his conduct to be required or authorized to assist a public officer in the performance of his duties, notwithstanding that the officer exceeded his legal authority.

18c505s

§ 505.  Use of force in self-protection.

(a)  Use of force justifiable for protection of the person.--The use of force upon or toward another person is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary for the purpose of protecting himself against the use of unlawful force by such other person on the present occasion.

(b)  Limitations on justifying necessity for use of force.--

(1)  The use of force is not justifiable under this section:

(i)  to resist an arrest which the actor knows is being made by a peace officer, although the arrest is unlawful; or

(ii)  to resist force used by the occupier or possessor of property or by another person on his behalf, where the actor knows that the person using the force is doing so under a claim of right to protect the property, except that this limitation shall not apply if:

(A)  the actor is a public officer acting in the performance of his duties or a person lawfully assisting him therein or a person making or assisting in a lawful arrest;

(B)  the actor has been unlawfully dispossessed of the property and is making a reentry or recaption justified by section 507 of this title (relating to use of force for the protection of property); or

(C)  the actor believes that such force is necessary to protect himself against death or serious bodily injury.

(2)  The use of deadly force is not justifiable under this section unless the actor believes that such force is necessary to protect himself against death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping or sexual intercourse compelled by force or threat; nor is it justifiable if:

(i)  the actor, with the intent of causing death or serious bodily injury, provoked the use of force against himself in the same encounter; or

(ii)  the actor knows that he can avoid the necessity of using such force with complete safety by retreating, except the actor is not obliged to retreat from his dwelling or place of work, unless he was the initial aggressor or is assailed in his place of work by another person whose place of work the actor knows it to be.

(2.1)  Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (2.2), an actor is presumed to have a reasonable belief that deadly force is immediately necessary to protect himself against death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping or sexual intercourse compelled by force or threat if both of the following conditions exist:

(i)  The person against whom the force is used is in the process of unlawfully and forcefully entering, or has unlawfully and forcefully entered and is present within, a dwelling, residence or occupied vehicle; or the person against whom the force is used is or is attempting to unlawfully and forcefully remove another against that other's will from the dwelling, residence or occupied vehicle.

(ii)  The actor knows or has reason to believe that the unlawful and forceful entry or act is occurring or has occurred.

(2.2)  The presumption set forth in paragraph (2.1) does not apply if:

(i)  the person against whom the force is used has the right to be in or is a lawful resident of the dwelling, residence or vehicle, such as an owner or lessee;

(ii)  the person sought to be removed is a child or grandchild or is otherwise in the lawful custody or under the lawful guardianship of the person against whom the protective force is used;

(iii)  the actor is engaged in a criminal activity or is using the dwelling, residence or occupied vehicle to further a criminal activity; or

(iv)  the person against whom the force is used is a peace officer acting in the performance of his official duties and the actor using force knew or reasonably should have known that the person was a peace officer.

(2.3)  An actor who is not engaged in a criminal activity, who is not in illegal possession of a firearm and who is attacked in any place where the actor would have a duty to retreat under paragraph (2)(ii) has no duty to retreat and has the right to stand his ground and use force, including deadly force, if:

(i)  the actor has a right to be in the place where he was attacked;

(ii)  the actor believes it is immediately necessary to do so to protect himself against death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping or sexual intercourse by force or threat; and

(iii)  the person against whom the force is used displays or otherwise uses:

(A)  a firearm or replica of a firearm as defined in 42 Pa.C.S. § 9712 (relating to sentences for offenses committed with firearms); or

(B)  any other weapon readily or apparently capable of lethal use.

(2.4)  The exception to the duty to retreat set forth   under paragraph (2.3) does not apply if the person against whom the force is used is a peace officer acting in the performance of his official duties and the actor using force knew or reasonably should have known that the person was a peace officer.

(2.5)  Unless one of the exceptions under paragraph (2.2) applies, a person who unlawfully and by force enters or attempts to enter an actor's dwelling, residence or occupied vehicle or removes or attempts to remove another against that other's will from the actor's dwelling, residence or occupied vehicle is presumed to be doing so with the intent to commit:

(i)  an act resulting in death or serious bodily injury; or

(ii)  kidnapping or sexual intercourse by force or threat.

(2.6)  A public officer justified in using force in the performance of his duties or a person justified in using force in his assistance or a person justified in using force in making an arrest or preventing an escape is not obliged to desist from efforts to perform such duty, effect such arrest or prevent such escape because of resistance or threatened resistance by or on behalf of the person against whom such action is directed.

(3)  Except as otherwise required by this subsection, a person employing protective force may estimate the necessity thereof under the circumstances as he believes them to be when the force is used, without retreating, surrendering possession, doing any other act which he has no legal duty to do or abstaining from any lawful action.

(c)  Use of confinement as protective force.--The justification afforded by this section extends to the use of confinement as protective force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he safely can, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.

(d)  Definition.--As used in this section, the term "criminal activity" means conduct which is a misdemeanor or felony, is not justifiable under this chapter and is related to the confrontation between an actor and the person against whom force is used.

18c505v

(June 28, 2011, P.L.48, No.10, eff. 60 days)

 

2011 Amendment.  Act 10 amended subsec. (b) and added subsec. (d). See the preamble to Act 10 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to legislative findings.

Cross References.  Section 505 is referred to in section 506 of this title; section 6304 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 8340.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c506s

§ 506.  Use of force for the protection of other persons.

(a)  General rule.--The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable to protect a third person when:

(1)  the actor would be justified under section 505 (relating to use of force in self-protection) in using such force to protect himself against the injury he believes to be threatened to the person whom he seeks to protect;

(2)  under the circumstances as the actor believes them to be, the person whom he seeks to protect would be justified in using such protective force; and

(3)  the actor believes that his intervention is necessary for the protection of such other person.

(b)  Exception.--Notwithstanding subsection (a), the actor is not obliged to retreat to any greater extent than the person whom he seeks to protect.

18c506v

(June 28, 2011, P.L.48, No.10, eff. 60 days)

 

2011 Amendment.  See the preamble to Act 10 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to legislative findings.

Cross References.  Section 506 is referred to in section 6304 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 8340.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c507s

§ 507.  Use of force for the protection of property.

(a)  Use of force justifiable for protection of property.--The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary:

(1)  to prevent or terminate an unlawful entry or other trespass upon land or a trespass against or the unlawful carrying away of tangible movable property, if such land or movable property is, or is believed by the actor to be, in his possession or in the possession of another person for whose protection he acts; or

(2)  to effect an entry or reentry upon land or to retake tangible movable property, if:

(i)  the actor believes that he or the person by whose authority he acts or a person from whom he or such other person derives title was unlawfully dispossessed of such land or movable property and is entitled to possession; and

(ii)  (A)  the force is used immediately or on fresh pursuit after such dispossession; or

(B)  the actor believes that the person against whom he uses force has no claim of right to the possession of the property and, in the case of land, the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be, are of such urgency that it would be an exceptional hardship to postpone the entry or reentry until a court order is obtained.

(b)  Meaning of possession.--For the purpose of subsection (a) of this section:

(1)  A person who has parted with the custody of property to another who refuses to restore it to him is no longer in possession, unless the property is movable and was and still is located on land in his possession.

(2)  A person who has been dispossessed of land does not regain possession thereof merely by setting foot thereon.

(3)  A person who has a license to use or occupy real property is deemed to be in possession thereof except against the licensor acting under claim of right.

(c)  Limitations on justifiable use of force.--

(1)  The use of force is justifiable under this section only if the actor first requests the person against whom such force is used to desist from his interference with the property, unless the actor believes that:

(i)  such request would be useless;

(ii)  it would be dangerous to himself or another person to make the request; or

(iii)  substantial harm will be done to the physical condition of the property which is sought to be protected before the request can effectively be made.

(2)  The use of force to prevent or terminate a trespass is not justifiable under this section if the actor knows that the exclusion of the trespasser will expose him to substantial danger of serious bodily injury.

(3)  The use of force to prevent an entry or reentry upon land or the recaption of movable property is not justifiable under this section, although the actor believes that such reentry or caption is unlawful, if:

(i)  the reentry or recaption is made by or on behalf of a person who was actually dispossessed of the property; and

(ii)  it is otherwise justifiable under subsection (a)(2).

(4)  (i)  The use of deadly force is justifiable under this section if:

(A)  there has been an entry into the actor's dwelling;

(B)  the actor neither believes nor has reason to believe that the entry is lawful; and

(C)  the actor neither believes nor has reason to believe that force less than deadly force would be adequate to terminate the entry.

(ii)  If the conditions of justification provided in subparagraph (i) have not been met, the use of deadly force is not justifiable under this section unless the actor believes that:

(A)  the person against whom the force is used is attempting to dispossess him of his dwelling otherwise than under a claim of right to its possession; or

(B)  such force is necessary to prevent the commission of a felony in the dwelling.

(d)  Use of confinement as protective force.--The justification afforded by this section extends to the use of confinement as protective force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he can do so with safety to the property, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.

(e)  Use of device to protect property.--The justification afforded by this section extends to the use of a device for the purpose of protecting property only if:

(1)  the device is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death or serious bodily injury;

(2)  the use of the particular device to protect the property from entry or trespass is reasonable under the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be; and

(3)  the device is one customarily used for such a purpose or reasonable care is taken to make known to probable intruders the fact that it is used.

(f)  Use of force to pass wrongful obstructor.--The use of force to pass a person whom the actor believes to be intentionally or knowingly and unjustifiably obstructing the actor from going to a place to which he may lawfully go is justifiable, if:

(1)  the actor believes that the person against whom he uses force has no claim of right to obstruct the actor;

(2)  the actor is not being obstructed from entry or movement on land which he knows to be in the possession or custody of the person obstructing him, or in the possession or custody of another person by whose authority the obstructor acts, unless the circumstances, as the actor believes them to be, are of such urgency that it would not be reasonable to postpone the entry or movement on such land until a court order is obtained; and

(3)  the force used is not greater than it would be justifiable if the person obstructing the actor were using force against him to prevent his passage.

18c507v

(Dec. 19, 1980, P.L.1310, No.235, eff. imd.)

 

1980 Amendment.  Act 235 amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 507 is referred to in section 505 of this title; section 8340.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c508s

§ 508.  Use of force in law enforcement.

(a)  Peace officer's use of force in making arrest.--

(1)  A peace officer, or any person whom he has summoned or directed to assist him, need not retreat or desist from efforts to make a lawful arrest because of resistance or threatened resistance to the arrest. He is justified in the use of any force which he believes to be necessary to effect the arrest and of any force which he believes to be necessary to defend himself or another from bodily harm while making the arrest. However, he is justified in using deadly force only when he believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or serious bodily injury to himself or such other person, or when he believes both that:

(i)  such force is necessary to prevent the arrest from being defeated by resistance or escape; and

(ii)  the person to be arrested has committed or attempted a forcible felony or is attempting to escape and possesses a deadly weapon, or otherwise indicates that he will endanger human life or inflict serious bodily injury unless arrested without delay.

(2)  A peace officer making an arrest pursuant to an invalid warrant is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the warrant were valid, unless he knows that the warrant is invalid.

(b)  Private person's use of force in making arrest.--

(1)  A private person who makes, or assists another private person in making a lawful arrest is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if he were summoned or directed by a peace officer to make such arrest, except that he is justified in the use of deadly force only when he believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or serious bodily injury to himself or another.

(2)  A private person who is summoned or directed by a peace officer to assist in making an arrest which is unlawful, is justified in the use of any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, unless he knows that the arrest is unlawful.

(3)  A private person who assists another private person in effecting an unlawful arrest, or who, not being summoned, assists a peace officer in effecting an unlawful arrest, is justified in using any force which he would be justified in using if the arrest were lawful, if:

(i)  he believes the arrest is lawful; and

(ii)  the arrest would be lawful if the facts were as he believes them to be.

(c)  Use of force regarding escape.--

(1)  A peace officer, corrections officer or other person who has an arrested or convicted person in his custody is justified in the use of such force to prevent the escape of the person from custody as the officer or other person would be justified in using under subsection (a) if the officer or other person were arresting the person.

(2)  A peace officer or corrections officer is justified in the use of such force, including deadly force, which the officer believes to be necessary to prevent the escape from a correctional institution of a person whom the officer believes to be lawfully detained in such institution under sentence for an offense or awaiting trial or commitment for an offense.

(3)  A corrections officer is justified in the use of such force, which the officer believes to be necessary to defend himself or another from bodily harm during the pursuit of the escaped person. However, the officer is justified in using deadly force only when the officer believes that such force is necessary to prevent death or serious bodily injury to himself or another or when the officer believes that:

(i)  such force is necessary to prevent the apprehension from being defeated by resistance; and

(ii)  the escaped person has been convicted of committing or attempting to commit a forcible felony, possesses a deadly weapon or otherwise indicates that he will endanger human life or inflict serious bodily injury unless apprehended without delay.

(d)  Use of force to prevent suicide or the commission of crime.--

(1)  The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable when the actor believes that such force is immediately necessary to prevent such other person from committing suicide, inflicting serious bodily injury upon himself, committing or consummating the commission of a crime involving or threatening bodily injury, damage to or loss of property or a breach of the peace, except that:

(i)  Any limitations imposed by the other provisions of this chapter on the justifiable use of force in self-protection, for the protection of others, the protection of property, the effectuation of an arrest or the prevention of an escape from custody shall apply notwithstanding the criminality of the conduct against which such force is used.

(ii)  The use of deadly force is not in any event justifiable under this subsection unless:

(A)  the actor believes that there is a substantial risk that the person whom he seeks to prevent from committing a crime will cause death or serious bodily injury to another unless the commission or the consummation of the crime is prevented and that the use of such force presents no substantial risk of injury to innocent persons; or

(B)  the actor believes that the use of such force is necessary to suppress a riot or mutiny after the rioters or mutineers have been ordered to disperse and warned, in any particular manner that the law may require, that such force will be used if they do not obey.

(2)  The justification afforded by this subsection extends to the use of confinement as preventive force only if the actor takes all reasonable measures to terminate the confinement as soon as he knows that he safely can, unless the person confined has been arrested on a charge of crime.

18c508v

(July 17, 2007, P.L.139, No.41, eff. 60 days)

 

2007 Amendment.  Act 41 amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 508 is referred to in section 8340.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c509s

§ 509.  Use of force by persons with special responsibility for care, discipline or safety of others.

The use of force upon or toward the person of another is justifiable if:

(1)  The actor is the parent or guardian or other person similarly responsible for the general care and supervision of a minor or a person acting at the request of such parent, guardian or other responsible person and:

(i)  the force is used for the purpose of safeguarding or promoting the welfare of the minor, including the preventing or punishment of his misconduct; and

(ii)  the force used is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, serious bodily injury, disfigurement, extreme pain or mental distress or gross degradation.

(2)  The actor is a teacher or person otherwise entrusted with the care or supervision for a special purpose of a minor and:

(i)  the actor believes that the force used is necessary to further such special purpose, including the maintenance of reasonable discipline in a school, class or other group, and that the use of such force is consistent with the welfare of the minor; and

(ii)  the degree of force, if it had been used by the parent or guardian of the minor, would not be unjustifiable under paragraph (1)(ii).

(3)  The actor is the guardian or other person similarly responsible for the general care and supervision of an incapacitated, mentally ill or mentally retarded person; and:

(i)  the force is used for the purpose of safeguarding or promoting the welfare of the incapacitated, mentally ill or mentally retarded person, including the prevention of his misconduct, and there is no reasonable alternative to the use of such force; and

(ii)  the force used is not designed to cause or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, bodily injury, disfigurement, unnecessary pain, mental distress, or humiliation.

(4)  The actor is a doctor or other therapist or a person assisting him at his direction; and:

(i)  the force is used for the purpose of administering a recognized form of treatment not prohibited by law of this Commonwealth which the actor believes to be adapted to promoting the physical or mental health of the patient; and

(ii)  the treatment is administered with the consent of the patient, or, if the patient is a minor or an incapacitated person with the consent of his parent or guardian or other person legally competent to consent in his behalf, or the treatment is administered in an emergency when the actor believes that no one competent to consent can be consulted and that a reasonable person, wishing to safeguard the welfare of the patient, would consent.

(5)  The actor is a warden or other authorized official of a correctional institution; and:

(i)  he believes that the force used is necessary for the purpose of enforcing the lawful rules or procedures of the institution, unless his belief in the lawfulness of the rule or procedure sought to be enforced is erroneous and his error is due to ignorance or mistake as to the provisions of this title, any other provision of the criminal law or the law governing the administration of the institution;

(ii)  the nature or degree of force used is not forbidden by law; and

(iii)  if deadly force is used, its use is otherwise justifiable under this chapter.

(6)  The actor is a person responsible for the safety of a vessel or an aircraft or a person acting at his direction; and:

(i)  he believes that the force used is necessary to prevent interference with the operation of the vessel or aircraft or obstruction of the execution of a lawful order, unless his belief in the lawfulness of the order is erroneous and his error is due to ignorance or mistake as to the law defining his authority; and

(ii)  if deadly force is used, its use is otherwise justifiable under this chapter.

(7)  The actor is a person who is authorized or required by law to maintain order or decorum in a vehicle, train or other carrier or in a place where others are assembled; and:

(i)  he believes that the force used is necessary for such purpose; and

(ii)  the force used is not designed to cause death, or known to create a substantial risk of causing death, bodily injury, or extreme mental distress.

18c509v

(Oct. 21, 1988, P.L.1000, No.115, eff. imd.; Apr. 16, 1992, P.L.108, No.24, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 509 is referred to in section 8340.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c510s

§ 510.  Justification in property crimes.

Conduct involving the appropriation, seizure or destruction of, damage to, intrusion on or interference with property is justifiable under circumstances which would establish a defense of privilege in a civil action based thereon, unless:

(1)  this title or the law defining the offense deals with the specific situation involved; or

(2)  a legislative purpose to exclude the justification claimed otherwise plainly appears.

18c701h

 

 

CHAPTER 7

RESPONSIBILITY

(Reserved)

 

Enactment.  Chapter 7 (Reserved) was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

18c901h

 

 

CHAPTER 9

INCHOATE CRIMES

 

Sec.

901.  Criminal attempt.

902.  Criminal solicitation.

903.  Criminal conspiracy.

904.  Incapacity, irresponsibility or immunity of party to solicitation or conspiracy.

905.  Grading of criminal attempt, solicitation and conspiracy.

906.  Multiple convictions of inchoate crimes barred.

907.  Possessing instruments of crime.

908.  Prohibited offensive weapons.

908.1. Use or possession of electric or electronic incapacitation device.

909.  Manufacture, distribution or possession of master keys for motor vehicles.

910.  Manufacture, distribution, use or possession of devices for theft of telecommunications services.

911.  Corrupt organizations.

912.  Possession of weapon on school property.

913.  Possession of firearm or other dangerous weapon in court facility.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 9 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 9 is referred to in section 3218 of this title.

18c901s

§ 901.  Criminal attempt.

(a)  Definition of attempt.--A person commits an attempt when, with intent to commit a specific crime, he does any act which constitutes a substantial step toward the commission of that crime.

(b)  Impossibility.--It shall not be a defense to a charge of attempt that because of a misapprehension of the circumstances it would have been impossible for the accused to commit the crime attempted.

(c)  Renunciation.--

(1)  In any prosecution for an attempt to commit a crime, it is a defense that, under circumstances manifesting a voluntary and complete renunciation of his criminal intent, the defendant avoided the commission of the crime attempted by abandoning his criminal effort and, if the mere abandonment was insufficient to accomplish such avoidance, by taking further and affirmative steps which prevented the commission thereof.

(2)  A renunciation is not "voluntary and complete" within the meaning of this subsection if it is motivated in whole or part by:

(i)  a belief that circumstances exist which increase the probability of detection or apprehension of the defendant or another participant in the criminal enterprise, or which render more difficult the accomplishment of the criminal purpose; or

(ii)  a decision to postpone the criminal conduct until another time or to transfer the criminal effort to another victim or another but similar objective.

18c901v

 

Cross References.  Section 901 is referred to in section 5702 of this title; sections 5552, 6302 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c902s

§ 902.  Criminal solicitation.

(a)  Definition of solicitation.--A person is guilty of solicitation to commit a crime if with the intent of promoting or facilitating its commission he commands, encourages or requests another person to engage in specific conduct which would constitute such crime or an attempt to commit such crime or which would establish his complicity in its commission or attempted commission.

(b)  Renunciation.--It is a defense that the actor, after soliciting another person to commit a crime, persuaded him not to do so or otherwise prevented the commission of the crime, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal intent.

18c902v

 

Cross References.  Section 902 is referred to in section 5702 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports); sections 5552, 6302 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c903s

§ 903.  Criminal conspiracy.

(a)  Definition of conspiracy.--A person is guilty of conspiracy with another person or persons to commit a crime if with the intent of promoting or facilitating its commission he:

(1)  agrees with such other person or persons that they or one or more of them will engage in conduct which constitutes such crime or an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime; or

(2)  agrees to aid such other person or persons in the planning or commission of such crime or of an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime.

(b)  Scope of conspiratorial relationship.--If a person guilty of conspiracy, as defined by subsection (a) of this section, knows that a person with whom he conspires to commit a crime has conspired with another person or persons to commit the same crime, he is guilty of conspiring with such other person or persons, to commit such crime whether or not he knows their identity.

(c)  Conspiracy with multiple criminal objectives.--If a person conspires to commit a number of crimes, he is guilty of only one conspiracy so long as such multiple crimes are the object of the same agreement or continuous conspiratorial relationship.

(d)  Joinder and venue in conspiracy prosecutions.--

(1)  Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection, two or more persons charged with criminal conspiracy may be prosecuted jointly if:

(i)  they are charged with conspiring with one another; or

(ii)  the conspiracies alleged, whether they have the same or different parties, are so related that they constitute different aspects of a scheme of organized criminal conduct.

(2)  In any joint prosecution under paragraph (1) of this subsection:

(i)  no defendant shall be charged with a conspiracy in any county other than one in which he entered into such conspiracy or in which an overt act pursuant to such conspiracy was done by him or by a person with whom he conspired;

(ii)  neither the liability of any defendant nor the admissibility against him of evidence of acts or declarations of another shall be enlarged by such joinder; and

(iii)  the court shall order a severance or take a special verdict as to any defendant who so requests, if it deems it necessary or appropriate to promote the fair determination of his guilt or innocence, and shall take any other proper measures to protect the fairness of the trial.

(e)  Overt act.--No person may be convicted of conspiracy to commit a crime unless an overt act in pursuance of such conspiracy is alleged and proved to have been done by him or by a person with whom he conspired.

(f)  Renunciation.--It is a defense that the actor, after conspiring to commit a crime, thwarted the success of the conspiracy, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal intent.

(g)  Duration of conspiracy.--For purposes of 42 Pa.C.S. § 5552(d) (relating to commission of offense):

(1)  conspiracy is a continuing course of conduct which terminates when the crime or crimes which are its object are committed or the agreement that they be committed is abandoned by the defendant and by those with whom he conspired;

(2)  such abandonment is presumed if neither the defendant nor anyone with whom he conspired does any overt act in pursuance of the conspiracy during the applicable period of limitation; and

(3)  if an individual abandons the agreement, the conspiracy is terminated as to him only if and when he advises those with whom he conspired of his abandonment or he informs the law enforcement authorities of the existence of the conspiracy and of his participation therein.

18c903v

(Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days)

 

1978 Amendment.  Act 53 amended subsec. (g).

Cross References.  Section 903 is referred to in sections 4120, 5702 of this title; sections 5552, 6302 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c904s

§ 904.  Incapacity, irresponsibility or immunity of party to solicitation or conspiracy.

(a)  General rule.--Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, it is immaterial to the liability of a person who solicits or conspires with another to commit a crime that:

(1)  he or the person whom he solicits or with whom he conspires does not occupy a particular position or have a particular characteristic which is an element of such crime, if he believes that one of them does; or

(2)  the person whom he solicits or with whom he conspires is irresponsible or has an immunity to prosecution or conviction for the commission of the crime.

(b)  Exception.--It is a defense to a charge of solicitation or conspiracy to commit a crime that if the criminal object were achieved, the actor would not be guilty of a crime under the law defining the offense or as an accomplice under section 306(e) of this title (relating to status of actor) or section 306(f)(1) or (2) of this title (relating to exceptions).

18c905s

§ 905.  Grading of criminal attempt, solicitation and conspiracy.

(a)  Grading.--Except as otherwise provided in this title, attempt, solicitation and conspiracy are crimes of the same grade and degree as the most serious offense which is attempted or solicited or is an object of the conspiracy.

(b)  Mitigation.--If the particular conduct charged to constitute a criminal attempt, solicitation or conspiracy is so inherently unlikely to result or culminate in the commission of a crime that neither such conduct nor the actor presents a public danger warranting the grading of such offense under this section, the court may dismiss the prosecution.

18c905v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; Mar. 9, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.964, No.3, eff. 60 days)

18c906s

§ 906.  Multiple convictions of inchoate crimes barred.

A person may not be convicted of more than one of the inchoate crimes of criminal attempt, criminal solicitation or criminal conspiracy for conduct designed to commit or to culminate in the commission of the same crime.

18c906v

(Dec. 11, 1986, P.L.1517, No.164, eff. 60 days)

18c907s

§ 907.  Possessing instruments of crime.

(a)  Criminal instruments generally.--A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he possesses any instrument of crime with intent to employ it criminally.

(b)  Possession of weapon.--A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he possesses a firearm or other weapon concealed upon his person with intent to employ it criminally.

(c)  Unlawful body armor.--A person commits a felony of the third degree if in the course of the commission of a felony or in the attempt to commit a felony he uses or wears body armor or has in his control, custody or possession any body armor.

(d)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Body armor."  Any protective covering for the body, or parts thereof, made of any polyaramid fiber or any resin-treated glass fiber cloth or any material or combination of materials made or designed to prevent, resist, deflect or deter the penetration thereof by ammunition, knife, cutting or piercing instrument or any other weapon.

"Instrument of crime."  Any of the following:

(1)  Anything specially made or specially adapted for criminal use.

(2)  Anything used for criminal purposes and possessed by the actor under circumstances not manifestly appropriate for lawful uses it may have.

"Weapon."  Anything readily capable of lethal use and possessed under circumstances not manifestly appropriate for lawful uses which it may have. The term includes a firearm which is not loaded or lacks a clip or other component to render it immediately operable, and components which can readily be assembled into a weapon.

18c907v

(July 6, 1995, P.L.238, No.27, eff. 60 days; July 11, 1996, P.L.552, No.98, eff. 60 days)

 

1996 Amendment.  Act 98 overlooked the amendment by Act 27 of 1995, but the amendments do not conflict in substance and have both been given effect in setting forth the text of section 907.

Cross References.  Section 907 is referred to in section 912 of this title; section 6102 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations).

18c908s

§ 908.  Prohibited offensive weapons.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if, except as authorized by law, he makes repairs, sells, or otherwise deals in, uses, or possesses any offensive weapon.

(b)  Exceptions.--

(1)  It is a defense under this section for the defendant to prove by a preponderance of evidence that he possessed or dealt with the weapon solely as a curio or in a dramatic performance, or that, with the exception of a bomb, grenade or incendiary device, he complied with the National Firearms Act (26 U.S.C. § 5801 et seq.), or that he possessed it briefly in consequence of having found it or taken it from an aggressor, or under circumstances similarly negativing any intent or likelihood that the weapon would be used unlawfully.

(2)  This section does not apply to police forensic firearms experts or police forensic firearms laboratories. Also exempt from this section are forensic firearms experts or forensic firearms laboratories operating in the ordinary course of business and engaged in lawful operation who notify in writing, on an annual basis, the chief or head of any police force or police department of a city, and, elsewhere, the sheriff of a county in which they are located, of the possession, type and use of offensive weapons.

(3)  This section shall not apply to any person who makes, repairs, sells or otherwise deals in, uses or possesses any firearm for purposes not prohibited by the laws of this Commonwealth.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Firearm."  Any weapon which is designed to or may readily be converted to expel any projectile by the action of an explosive or the frame or receiver of any such weapon.

"Offensive weapons."  Any bomb, grenade, machine gun, sawed-off shotgun with a barrel less than 18 inches, firearm specially made or specially adapted for concealment or silent discharge, any blackjack, sandbag, metal knuckles, dagger, knife, razor or cutting instrument, the blade of which is exposed in an automatic way by switch, push-button, spring mechanism, or otherwise, any stun gun, stun baton, taser or other electronic or electric weapon or other implement for the infliction of serious bodily injury which serves no common lawful purpose.

(d)  Exemptions.--The use and possession of blackjacks by the following persons in the course of their duties are exempt from this section:

(1)  Police officers, as defined by and who meet the requirements of the act of June 18, 1974 (P.L.359, No.120), referred to as the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

(2)  Police officers of first class cities who have successfully completed training which is substantially equivalent to the program under the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

(3)  Pennsylvania State Police officers.

(4)  Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs of the various counties who have satisfactorily met the requirements of the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

(5)  Police officers employed by the Commonwealth who have satisfactorily met the requirements of the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

(6)  Deputy sheriffs with adequate training as determined by the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency.

(7)  Liquor Control Board agents who have satisfactorily met the requirements of the Municipal Police Education and Training Law.

18c908v

(Dec. 20, 1983, P.L.291, No.78, eff. imd.; July 6, 1984, P.L.647, No.134, eff. 90 days; July 11, 1985, P.L.235, No.58, eff. 60 days; Oct. 4, 1994, P.L.571, No.84, eff. 60 days; Nov. 6, 2002, P.L.1096, No.132, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 132 amended subsec. (c).

References in Text.  The act of June 18, 1974 (P.L.359, No.120), referred to as the Municipal Police Education and Training Law, referred to in the def. of "police officer," was repealed by the act of December 19, 1996, P.L.1158, No.177. The subject matter is now contained in Subchapter D of Chapter 21 of Title 53 (Municipalities Generally).

Cross References.  Section 908 is referred to in section 6105 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports).

18c908.1s

§ 908.1.  Use or possession of electric or electronic incapacitation device.

(a)  Offense defined.--Except as set forth in subsection (b), a person commits an offense if the person does any of the following:

(1)  Uses an electric or electronic incapacitation device on another person for an unlawful purpose.

(2)  Possesses, with intent to violate paragraph (1), an electric or electronic incapacitation device.

(b)  Self defense.--A person may possess and use an electric or electronic incapacitation device in the exercise of reasonable force in defense of the person or the person's property pursuant to Chapter 5 (relating to general principles of justification) if the electric or electronic incapacitation device is labeled with or accompanied by clearly written instructions as to its use and the damages involved in its use.

(c)  Prohibited possession.--No person prohibited from possessing a firearm pursuant to section 6105 (relating to persons not to possess, use, manufacture, control, sell or transfer firearms) may possess or use an electric or electronic incapacitation device.

(d)  Grading.--An offense under subsection (a) shall constitute a felony of the second degree if the actor acted with the intent to commit a felony. Otherwise any offense under this section is graded as a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(e)  Exceptions.--Nothing in this section shall prohibit the possession or use by, or the sale or furnishing of any electric or electronic incapacitation device to, a law enforcement agency, peace officer, employee of a correctional institution, county jail or prison or detention center, the National Guard or reserves or a member of the National Guard or reserves for use in their official duties.

(f)  Definition.--As used in this section, the term "electric or electronic incapacitation device" means a portable device which is designed or intended by the manufacturer to be used, offensively or defensively, to temporarily immobilize or incapacitate persons by means of electric pulse or current, including devices operating by means of carbon dioxide propellant. The term does not include cattle prods, electric fences or other electric devices when used in agricultural, animal husbandry or food production activities.

18c908.1v

(Nov. 6, 2002, P.L.1096, No.132, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 132 added section 908.1.

18c909s

§ 909.  Manufacture, distribution or possession of master keys for motor vehicles.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he manufactures, distributes, or possesses any motor vehicle master key.

(b)  Exception.--Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to:

(1)  The introduction, manufacture for introduction, transportation, distribution, sale or possession in commerce in this Commonwealth of motor vehicle master keys for use in the ordinary course of business by any commercial or professional locksmith, common carrier, contract carrier, motor vehicle fleet owner, new or used car dealer, rental car agency, car manufacturer, automobile club or association operating in more than one state or an affiliate thereof, or any department, agency, or instrumentality of:

(i)  the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the United States, any state, the District of Columbia, or any possession of the United States; or

(ii)  any political subdivision of any entity specified in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph.

(2)  The shipment, transportation, or delivery for shipment in commerce in this Commonwealth of motor vehicle master keys in the ordinary course of business by any common carrier or contract carrier.

(c)  Definition.--As used in this section "master key" means any key adapted to fit the ignition switch, trunk or door of two or more motor vehicles, the ignition switches, trunks or doors of which are designed to be operated by keys.

18c910s

§ 910.  Manufacture, distribution, use or possession of devices for theft of telecommunications services.

(a)  Offense defined.--Any person commits an offense if he:

(1)  makes, distributes, possesses, uses or assembles an unlawful telecommunication device or modifies, alters, programs or reprograms a telecommunication device designed, adapted or which can be used:

(i)  for commission of a theft of telecommunication service or to disrupt, transmit, decrypt, acquire or facilitate the disruption, transmission, decryption or acquisition of any telecommunication service without the consent of the telecommunication service provider; or

(ii)  to conceal or to assist another to conceal from any telecommunication service provider or from any lawful authority the existence or place of origin or of destination of any telecommunication; or

(2)  sells, possesses, distributes, gives or otherwise transfers to another or offers, promotes or advertises for sale any:

(i)  unlawful telecommunication device, or plans or instructions for making or assembling the same, under circumstances evidencing an intent to use or employ such unlawful telecommunication device, or to allow the same to be used or employed for a purpose described in paragraph (1), or knowing or having reason to believe that the same is intended to be so used, or that the aforesaid plans or instructions are intended to be used for making or assembling such unlawful telecommunication device; or

(ii)  material, including hardware, cables, tools, data, computer software or other information or equipment, knowing that the purchaser or a third person intends to use the material in the manufacture of an unlawful telecommunication device.

(b)  Grading.--

(1)  Except for violations of this section as provided for in paragraph (2) or (3), an offense under this section is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(2)  An offense under this section is a felony of the third degree if:

(i)  the defendant has been convicted previously under this section or convicted of any similar crime in this or any Federal or other state jurisdiction; or

(ii)  the violation of this section involves at least ten, but not more than 50, unlawful telecommunication devices.

(3)  An offense under this section is a felony of the second degree if:

(i)  the defendant has been convicted previously on two or more occasions for offenses under this section or for any similar crime in this or any Federal or other state jurisdiction; or

(ii)  the violation of this section involves more than 50 unlawful telecommunication devices.

(4)  For purposes of grading an offense based upon a prior conviction under this section or for any similar crime pursuant to paragraphs (2)(i) and (3)(i), a prior conviction shall consist of convictions upon separate indictments or criminal complaints for offenses under this section or any similar crime in this or any Federal or other state jurisdiction.

(5)  As provided for in paragraphs (2)(i) and (3)(i), in grading an offense under this section based upon a prior conviction, the term "any similar crime" shall include, but not be limited to, offenses involving theft of service or fraud, including violations of the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-549, 98 Stat. 2779).

(b.1)  Separate offenses.--For purposes of all criminal penalties or fines established for violations of this section, the prohibited activity established herein as it applies to each unlawful telecommunication device shall be deemed a separate offense.

(b.2)  Fines.--For purposes of imposing fines upon conviction of a defendant for an offense under this section, all fines shall be imposed in accordance with section 1101 (relating to fines).

(c)  Restitution.--The court shall, in addition to any other sentence authorized by law, sentence a person convicted of violating this section to make restitution under section 1106 (relating to restitution for injuries to person or property) or 42 Pa.C.S. § 9721(c) (relating to sentencing generally).

(c.1)  Forfeiture of unlawful telecommunication devices.--Upon conviction of a defendant under this section, the court may, in addition to any other sentence authorized by law, direct that the defendant forfeit any unlawful telecommunication devices in the defendant's possession or control which were involved in the violation for which the defendant was convicted.

(c.2)  Venue.--An offense under subsection (a) may be deemed to have been committed at either place where the defendant manufactures or assembles an unlawful telecommunication device or assists others in doing so or the places where the unlawful telecommunication device is sold or delivered to a purchaser, in accordance with section 102 (relating to territorial applicability). It shall be no defense to a violation of subsection (a) that some of the acts constituting the offense occurred outside of this Commonwealth.

(d)  Civil action.--

(1)  Any person aggrieved by a violation of this section may bring a civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction.

(2)  The court may:

(i)  grant preliminary and final injunctions to prevent or restrain violations of this section;

(ii)  at any time while an action is pending, order the impounding, on such terms as it deems reasonable, of any unlawful telecommunication device that is in the custody or control of the violator and that the court has reasonable cause to believe was involved in the alleged violation of this section;

(iii)  award damages as described in subsection (d.1);

(iv)  in its discretion, award reasonable attorney fees and costs, including, but not limited to, costs for investigation, testing and expert witness fees, to an aggrieved party who prevails; or

(v)  as part of a final judgment or decree finding a violation of this section, order the remedial modification or destruction of any unlawful telecommunication device involved in the violation that is in the custody or control of the violator or has been impounded under subparagraph (ii).

(d.1)  Types of damages recoverable.--Damages awarded by a court under this section shall be computed as either of the following:

(1)  Upon his election of such damages at any time before final judgment is entered, the complaining party may recover the actual damages suffered by him as a result of the violation of this section and any profits of the violator that are attributable to the violation and are not taken into account in computing the actual damages. In determining the violator's profits, the complaining party shall be required to prove only the violator's gross revenue, and the violator shall be required to prove his deductible expenses and the elements of profit attributable to factors other than the violation.

(2)  Upon election by the complaining party at any time before final judgment is entered, that party may recover in lieu of actual damages an award of statutory damages of between $250 to $10,000 for each unlawful telecommunication device involved in the action, with the amount of statutory damages to be determined by the court, not the jury, as the court considers just. In any case where the court finds that any of the violations of this section were committed willfully and for purposes of commercial advantage or private financial gain, the court in its discretion may increase the award of statutory damages by an amount of not more than $50,000 for each unlawful telecommunication device involved in the action.

(3)  For purposes of all civil remedies established for violations of this section, the prohibited activity established in this section applies to each unlawful telecommunication device and shall be deemed a separate violation.

(e)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Manufacture of an unlawful telecommunication device."  To produce or assemble an unlawful telecommunication device or to modify, alter, program or reprogram a telecommunication device to be capable of acquiring, disrupting, receiving, transmitting, decrypting or facilitating the acquisition, disruption, receipt, transmission or decryption of a telecommunication service without the consent of the telecommunication service provider or to knowingly assist others in those activities.

"Telecommunication device."  Any type of instrument, device, machine or equipment which is capable of transmitting, acquiring, decrypting or receiving any telephonic, electronic, data, Internet access, audio, video, microwave or radio transmissions, signals, communications or services, including the receipt, acquisition, transmission or decryption of all such communications, transmissions, signals or services over any cable television, telephone, satellite, microwave, radio or wireless distribution system or facility, or any part, accessory or components thereof, including any computer circuit, security module, smart card, software, computer chip, electronic mechanism or other component, accessory or part which is capable of facilitating the transmission, decryption, acquisition or reception of all such communications, transmissions, signals or services.

"Telecommunication service."  The meaning given to it in section 3926 (relating to theft of services) and also any service provided by any radio, telephone, cable television, satellite, microwave or wireless distribution system or facility, including, but not limited to, any and all electronic, data, video, audio, Internet access, telephonic, microwave and radio communications, transmissions, signals and services.

"Telecommunication service provider."  The meaning given to it in section 3926 (relating to theft of services) and includes any person or entity providing any telecommunication service, including, but not limited to, any person or entity owning or operating any cable television, satellite, telephone, wireless, microwave or radio distribution system or facility.

"Unlawful telecommunication device."  The meaning given to it in section 3926 (relating to theft of services) and includes any telecommunication device which is capable of or has been altered, designed, modified, programmed or reprogrammed, alone or in conjunction with another telecommunication device or devices so as to be capable of facilitating the disruption, acquisition, receipt, transmission or decryption of a telecommunication service without the consent or knowledge of the telecommunication service provider. In addition to the examples listed in section 3926, the term includes, but is not limited to, any device, technology, product, service, equipment, computer software or component or part thereof, primarily distributed, sold, designed, assembled, manufactured, modified, programmed, reprogrammed or used for the purpose of providing unauthorized disruption of, decryption of, access to or acquisition of any telecommunication service provided by any cable television, satellite, telephone, wireless, microwave or radio distribution system or facility.

18c910v

(July 20, 1974, P.L.539, No.185; June 13, 1995, P.L.52, No.8, eff. 60 days; June 22, 2000, P.L.469, No.64, eff. 60 days; Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.831, No.116, eff. imd.)

 

2000 Amendment.  Act 116 reenacted section 910.

Cross References.  Section 910 is referred to in section 5708 of this title.

18c911s

§ 911.  Corrupt organizations.

(a)  Findings of fact.--The General Assembly finds that:

(1)  organized crime is a highly sophisticated, diversified, and widespread phenomenon which annually drains billions of dollars from the national economy by various patterns of unlawful conduct including the illegal use of force, fraud, and corruption;

(2)  organized crime exists on a large scale within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, engaging in the same patterns of unlawful conduct which characterize its activities nationally;

(3)  the vast amounts of money and power accumulated by organized crime are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt legitimate businesses operating within the Commonwealth, together with all of the techniques of violence, intimidation, and other forms of unlawful conduct through which such money and power are derived;

(4)  in furtherance of such infiltration and corruption, organized crime utilizes and applies to its unlawful purposes laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania conferring and relating to the privilege of engaging in various types of business and designed to insure that such businesses are conducted in furtherance of the public interest and the general economic welfare of the Commonwealth;

(5)  such infiltration and corruption provide an outlet for illegally obtained capital, harm innocent investors, entrepreneurs, merchants and consumers, interfere with free competition, and thereby constitute a substantial danger to the economic and general welfare of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; and

(6)  in order to successfully resist and eliminate this situation, it is necessary to provide new remedies and procedures.

(b)  Prohibited activities.--

(1)  It shall be unlawful for any person who has received any income derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of racketeering activity in which such person participated as a principal, to use or invest, directly or indirectly, any part of such income, or the proceeds of such income, in the acquisition of any interest in, or the establishment or operation of, any enterprise: Provided, however, That a purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so, shall not be unlawful under this subsection if the securities of the issue held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any pattern of racketeering activity after such purchase, do not amount in the aggregate to 1% of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer: Provided, further, That if, in any proceeding involving an alleged investment in violation of this subsection, it is established that over half of the defendant's aggregate income for a period of two or more years immediately preceding such investment was derived from a pattern of racketeering activity, a rebuttable presumption shall arise that such investment included income derived from such pattern of racketeering activity.

(2)  It shall be unlawful for any person through a pattern of racketeering activity to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control of any enterprise.

(3)  It shall be unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in the conduct of such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering activity.

(4)  It shall be unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection.

(c)  Grading.--Whoever violates any provision of subsection (b) of this section is guilty of a felony of the first degree. A violation of this subsection shall be deemed to continue so long as the person who committed the violation continues to receive any benefit from the violation.

(d)  Civil remedies.--

(1)  The several courts of common pleas, and the Commonwealth Court, shall have jurisdiction to prevent and restrain violations of subsection (b) of this section by issuing appropriate orders, including but not limited to:

(i)  ordering any person to divest himself of any interest direct or indirect, in the enterprise; imposing reasonable restrictions on the future activities or investments of any person, including but not limited to, prohibiting any person from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise engaged in; and

(ii)  making due provision for the rights of innocent persons, ordering the dissolution of the enterprise, ordering the denial, suspension or revocation of charters of domestic corporations, certificates of authority authorizing foreign corporations to do business within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, licenses, permits, or prior approval granted to any enterprise by any department or agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; or prohibiting the enterprise from engaging in any business.

(2)  In any proceeding under this subsection, the court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination thereof. Pending final determination, the court may enter preliminary or special injunctions, or take such other actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as it may deem proper.

(3)  A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in any criminal proceeding under this section shall estop the defendant from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil proceeding under this subsection.

(4)  Proceedings under this subsection, at pretrial, trial and appellate levels, shall be governed by the Pennsylvania Rules of Civil Procedure and all other rules and procedures relating to civil actions, except to the extent inconsistent with the provisions of this section.

(e)  Enforcement.--

(1)  The Attorney General shall have the power and duty to enforce the provisions of this section, including the authority to issue civil investigative demands pursuant to subsection (f), institute proceedings under subsection (d), and to take such actions as may be necessary to ascertain and investigate alleged violations of this section.

(2)  The Attorney General and the district attorneys of the several counties shall have concurrent authority to institute criminal proceedings under the provisions of this section.

(3)  Nothing contained in this subsection shall be construed to limit the regulatory or investigative authority of any department or agency of the Commonwealth whose functions might relate to persons, enterprises, or matters falling within the scope of this section.

(f)  Civil investigative demand.--

(1)  Whenever the Attorney General has reason to believe that any person or enterprise may be in possession, custody, or control of any documentary material relevant to a racketeering investigation, he may issue in writing, and cause to be served upon such person or enterprise, a civil investigative demand requiring the production of such material for examination.

(2)  Each such demand shall:

(i)  state the nature of the conduct constituting the alleged racketeering violation which is under investigation, the provision of law applicable thereto and the connection between the documentary material demanded and the conduct under investigation;

(ii)  describe the class or classes of documentary material to be produced thereunder with such definiteness and certainty as to permit such material to be fairly identified;

(iii)  state that the demand is returnable forthwith or prescribe a return date which will provide a reasonable period of time within which the material so demanded may be assembled and made available for inspection and copying or reproduction;

(iv)  identify a racketeering investigator to whom such material shall be made available; and

(v)  contain the following statement printed conspicuously at the top of the demand: "You have the right to seek the assistance of any attorney and he may represent you in all phases of the racketeering investigation of which this civil investigative demand is a part."

(3)  No such demand shall:

(i)  contain any requirement which would be held to be unreasonable if contained in a subpoena duces tecum issued by any court in connection with a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation; or

(ii)  require the production of any documentary evidence which would be privileged from disclosure if demanded by a subpoena duces tecum issued by any court in connection with a grand jury investigation of such alleged racketeering violation.

(4)  Service of any such demand or any petition filed under this subsection shall be made in the manner prescribed by the Pennsylvania Rules of Civil Procedure for service of writs and complaints.

(5)  A verified return by the individual serving any such demand or petition setting forth the manner of such service shall be prima facie proof of such service. In the case of service by registered or certified mail, such return shall be accompanied by the return post office receipt of delivery of such demand.

(6)  (i)  Any party upon whom any demand issued under this subsection has been duly served shall make such material available for inspection and copying or reproduction to the racketeering investigator designated therein at the principal place of business of such party, or at such other place as such investigator and such party thereafter may agree or as the court may direct pursuant to this subsection, on the return date specified in such demand. Such party may upon agreement of the investigator substitute copies of all or any part of such material for the originals thereof.

(ii)  The racketeering investigator to whom any documentary material is so delivered shall take physical possession thereof, and shall be responsible for the use made thereof and for its return pursuant to this subsection. The investigator may cause the preparation of such copies of such documentary material as may be required for official use. While in the possession of the investigator, no material so produced shall be available for examination, without the consent of the party who produced such material, by any individual other than the Attorney General or any racketeering investigator. Under such reasonable terms and conditions as the Attorney General shall prescribe, documentary material while in the possession of the investigator shall be available for examination by the party who produced such material or any duly authorized representatives of such party.

(iii)  Upon completion of:

(A)  the racketeering investigation for which any documentary material was produced under this subsection; and

(B)  any case or proceeding arising from such investigation;

the investigator shall return to the party who produced such material all such material other than copies thereof made pursuant to this subsection which have not passed into the control of any court or grand jury through introduction into the record of such case or proceeding.

(iv)  When any documentary material has been produced by any party under this subsection for use in any racketeering investigation, and no case or proceeding arising therefrom has been instituted within a reasonable time after completion of the examination and analysis of all evidence assembled in the course of such investigation, such party shall be entitled, upon written demand made upon the Attorney General, to the return of all documentary material, other than copies thereof made pursuant to this subsection, so produced by such party.

(7)  Whenever any person or enterprise fails to comply with any civil investigative demand duly served upon him under this subsection or whenever satisfactory copying or reproduction of any such material cannot be done and such party refuses to surrender such material, the Attorney General may file, in the court of common pleas for any county in which such party resides or transacts business, and serve upon such party a petition for an order of such court for the enforcement of this subsection, except that if such person transacts business in more than one county such petition shall be filed in the county in which party maintains his or its principal place of business.

(8)  Within 20 days after the service of any such demand upon any person or enterprise, or at any time before the return date specified in the demand, whichever period is shorter, such party may file, in the court of common pleas of the county within which such party resides or transacts business, and serve upon the Attorney General a petition for an order of such court modifying or setting aside such demand. The time allowed for compliance with the demand in whole or in part as deemed proper and ordered by the court shall not run during the pendency of such petition in the court. Such petition shall specify each ground upon which the petitioner relies in seeking such relief, and may be based upon any failure of such demand to comply with the provisions of this subsection or upon any constitutional or other legal right or privilege of such party.

(9)  At any time during which the Attorney General is in custody or control of any documentary material delivered by any party in compliance with any such demand, such party may file, in the court of common pleas of the county within which such documentary material was delivered, and serve upon the Attorney General a petition for an order of such court requiring the performance of any duty imposed by this subsection.

(10)  Whenever any petition is filed in any court of common pleas under this subsection, such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter so presented, and, after a hearing at which all parties are represented, to enter such order or orders as may be required to carry into effect the provisions of this subsection.

(g)  Immunity.--Whenever any individual refuses, on the basis of his privilege against self-incrimination, to comply with a civil investigative demand issued pursuant to subsection (f) or to testify or produce other information in any proceeding under subsection (d), the Attorney General may invoke the provisions of 42 Pa.C.S. § 5947 (relating to immunity of witnesses).

(h)  Definitions.--As used in this section:

(1)  "Racketeering activity" means all of the following:

(i)  An act which is indictable under any of the following provisions of this title:

Chapter 25 (relating to criminal homicide)

Section 2706 (relating to terroristic threats)

Chapter 29 (relating to kidnapping)

Chapter 30 (relating to human trafficking)

Chapter 33 (relating to arson, criminal mischief and other property destruction)

Chapter 37 (relating to robbery)

Chapter 39 (relating to theft and related offenses)

Section 4108 (relating to commercial bribery and breach of duty to act disinterestedly)

Section 4109 (relating to rigging publicly exhibited contest)

Section 4117 (relating to insurance fraud)

Chapter 47 (relating to bribery and corrupt influence)

Chapter 49 (relating to falsification and intimidation)

Section 5111 (relating to dealing in proceeds of unlawful activities)

Section 5512 (relating to lotteries, etc.)

Section 5513 (relating to gambling devices, gambling, etc.)

Section 5514 (relating to pool selling and bookmaking)

Chapter 59 (relating to public indecency).

(ii)  An offense indictable under section 13 of the act of April 14, 1972 (P.L.233, No.64), known as The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act (relating to the sale and dispensing of narcotic drugs).

(iii)  A conspiracy to commit any of the offenses set forth in subparagraph (i), (ii) and (v).

(iv)  The collection of any money or other property in full or partial satisfaction of a debt which arose as the result of the lending of money or other property at a rate of interest exceeding 25% per annum or the equivalent rate for a longer or shorter period, where not otherwise authorized by law.

(v)  An offense indictable under 4 Pa.C.S. Pt. II (relating to gaming).

An act which otherwise would be considered racketeering activity by reason of the application of this paragraph, shall not be excluded from its application solely because the operative acts took place outside the jurisdiction of this Commonwealth, if such acts would have been in violation of the law of the jurisdiction in which they occurred.

(2)  "Person" means any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property.

(3)  "Enterprise" means any individual, partnership, corporation, association or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity, engaged in commerce and includes legitimate as well as illegitimate entities and governmental entities.

(4)  "Pattern of racketeering activity" refers to a course of conduct requiring two or more acts of racketeering activity one of which occurred after the effective date of this section.

(5)  "Racketeering investigator" means an attorney, investigator or investigative body so designated in writing by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect the provisions of this section.

(6)  "Racketeering investigation" means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this section or of any order, judgment, or decree of any court duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this section.

(7)  "Documentary material" means any book, paper, record, recording, tape, report, memorandum, written communication, or other document relating to the business affairs of any person or enterprise.

(8)  "Organized crime" means any person or combination of persons engaging in or having the purpose of engaging in conduct which violates any provision of subsection (b) and also includes "organized crime" as defined in section 5702 (relating to definitions).

18c911v

(Dec. 30, 1974, P.L.1044, No.341, eff. imd.; Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days; Oct. 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, eff. 60 days; Feb. 7, 1990, P.L.11, No.6, eff. 60 days; June 19, 1996, P.L.342, No.55, eff. imd.; Nov. 1, 2006, P.L.1243, No.135, eff. imd.; Nov. 9, 2006, P.L.1340, No.139, eff. 60 days; Nov. 29, 2006, P.L.1481, No.168, eff. 60 days; July 2, 2014, P.L.945, No.105, eff. 60 days)

 

2014 Amendment.  Act 105 amended subsec. (h)(1)(i) and carried without amendment subsec. (h)(1) last sentence.

1996 Amendment.  Act 55 amended subsec. (h)(1) and (3) and added subsec. (h)(8).

1990 Amendment.  Act 6 amended subsec. (h).

1980 Amendment.  Act 142 amended subsec. (g).

Cross References.  Section 911 is referred to in sections 5708, 6105 of this title; section 5552 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c912s

§ 912.  Possession of weapon on school property.

(a)  Definition.--Notwithstanding the definition of "weapon" in section 907 (relating to possessing instruments of crime), "weapon" for purposes of this section shall include but not be limited to any knife, cutting instrument, cutting tool, nun-chuck stick, firearm, shotgun, rifle and any other tool, instrument or implement capable of inflicting serious bodily injury.

(b)  Offense defined.--A person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he possesses a weapon in the buildings of, on the grounds of, or in any conveyance providing transportation to or from any elementary or secondary publicly-funded educational institution, any elementary or secondary private school licensed by the Department of Education or any elementary or secondary parochial school.

(c)  Defense.--It shall be a defense that the weapon is possessed and used in conjunction with a lawful supervised school activity or course or is possessed for other lawful purpose.

18c912v

(Oct. 16, 1980, P.L.978, No.167, eff. 60 days)

 

1980 Amendment.  Act 167 added section 912.

Cross References.  Section 912 is referred to in section 6105 of this title.

18c913s

§ 913.  Possession of firearm or other dangerous weapon in court facility.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits an offense if he:

(1)  knowingly possesses a firearm or other dangerous weapon in a court facility or knowingly causes a firearm or other dangerous weapon to be present in a court facility; or

(2)  knowingly possesses a firearm or other dangerous weapon in a court facility with the intent that the firearm or other dangerous weapon be used in the commission of a crime or knowingly causes a firearm or other dangerous weapon to be present in a court facility with the intent that the firearm or other dangerous weapon be used in the commission of a crime.

(b)  Grading.--

(1)  Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3), an offense under subsection (a)(1) is a misdemeanor of the third degree.

(2)  An offense under subsection (a)(2) is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(3)  An offense under subsection (a)(1) is a summary offense if the person was carrying a firearm under section 6106(b) (relating to firearms not to be carried without a license) or 6109 (relating to licenses) and failed to check the firearm under subsection (e) prior to entering the court facility.

(c)  Exceptions.--Subsection (a) shall not apply to:

(1)  The lawful performance of official duties by an officer, agent or employee of the United States, the Commonwealth or a political subdivision who is authorized by law to engage in or supervise the prevention, detection, investigation or prosecution of any violation of law.

(2)  The lawful performance of official duties by a court official.

(3)  The carrying of rifles and shotguns by instructors and participants in a course of instruction provided by the Pennsylvania Game Commission under 34 Pa.C.S. § 2704 (relating to eligibility for license).

(4)  Associations of veteran soldiers and their auxiliaries or members of organized armed forces of the United States or the Commonwealth, including reserve components, when engaged in the performance of ceremonial duties with county approval.

(5)  The carrying of a dangerous weapon or firearm unloaded and in a secure wrapper by an attorney who seeks to employ the dangerous weapon or firearm as an exhibit or as a demonstration and who possesses written authorization from the court to bring the dangerous weapon or firearm into the court facility.

(d)  Posting of notice.--Notice of the provisions of subsections (a) and (e) shall be posted conspicuously at each public entrance to each courthouse or other building containing a court facility and each court facility, and no person shall be convicted of an offense under subsection (a)(1) with respect to a court facility if the notice was not so posted at each public entrance to the courthouse or other building containing a court facility and at the court facility unless the person had actual notice of the provisions of subsection (a).

(e)  Facilities for checking firearms or other dangerous weapons.--Each county shall make available at or within the building containing a court facility by July 1, 2002, lockers or similar facilities at no charge or cost for the temporary checking of firearms by persons carrying firearms under section 6106(b) or 6109 or for the checking of other dangerous weapons that are not otherwise prohibited by law. Any individual checking a firearm, dangerous weapon or an item deemed to be a dangerous weapon at a court facility must be issued a receipt. Notice of the location of the facility shall be posted as required under subsection (d).

(f)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Court facility."  The courtroom of a court of record; a courtroom of a community court; the courtroom of a magisterial district judge; a courtroom of the Philadelphia Municipal Court; a courtroom of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court; a courtroom of the Traffic Court of Philadelphia; judge's chambers; witness rooms; jury deliberation rooms; attorney conference rooms; prisoner holding cells; offices of court clerks, the district attorney, the sheriff and probation and parole officers; and any adjoining corridors.

"Dangerous weapon."  A bomb, any explosive or incendiary device or material when possessed with intent to use or to provide such material to commit any offense, graded as a misdemeanor of the third degree or higher, grenade, blackjack, sandbag, metal knuckles, dagger, knife (the blade of which is exposed in an automatic way by switch, push-button, spring mechanism or otherwise) or other implement for the infliction of serious bodily injury which serves no common lawful purpose.

"Firearm."  Any weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to expel a projectile or projectiles by the action of an explosion, expansion of gas or escape of gas. The term does not include any device designed or used exclusively for the firing of stud cartridges, explosive rivets or similar industrial ammunition.

18c913v

(June 13, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.1024, No.17, eff. 120 days; Nov. 22, 1995, P.L.621, No.66, eff. imd.; Dec. 15, 1999, P.L.915, No.59, eff. 60 days; Nov. 30, 2004, P.L.1618, No.207, eff. 60 days; Feb. 25, 2014, P.L.33, No.16, eff. 60 days)

 

2014 Amendment.  Act 16 amended subsec. (f).

2004 Amendment.  See sections 28 and 29 of Act 207 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to applicability and construction of law.

1999 Amendment.  Act 59 amended subsec. (e).

1995 Amendments.  Act 17, 1st Sp.Sess., added section 913 and Act 66 amended subsecs. (c) and (e). See the preamble to Act 17, 1st Sp.Sess., in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to legislative purpose.

18c1101h

 

 

CHAPTER 11

AUTHORIZED DISPOSITION OF OFFENDERS

 

Sec.

1101.  Fines.

1102.  Sentence for murder, murder of unborn child and murder of law enforcement officer.

1102.1.  Sentence of persons under the age of 18 for murder, murder of unborn child and murder of law enforcement officer.

1103.  Sentence of imprisonment for felony.

1104.  Sentence of imprisonment for misdemeanors.

1105.  Sentence of imprisonment for summary offenses.

1106.  Restitution for injuries to person or property.

1107.  Restitution for theft of timber.

1107.1. Restitution for identity theft.

1108.  District attorneys' standing and interest in prisoner litigation.

1109.  Costs.

1110.  Restitution for cleanup of clandestine laboratories.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 11 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 11 is referred to in section 305 of this title.

18c1101s

§ 1101.  Fines.

A person who has been convicted of an offense may be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding:

(1)  $50,000, when the conviction is of murder or attempted murder.

(2)  $25,000, when the conviction is of a felony of the first or second degree.

(3)  $15,000, when the conviction is of a felony of the third degree.

(4)  $10,000, when the conviction is of a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(5)  $5,000, when the conviction is of a misdemeanor of the second degree.

(6)  $2,500, when the conviction is of a misdemeanor of the third degree.

(7)  $300, when the conviction is of a summary offense for which no higher fine is established.

(8)  Any higher amount equal to double the pecuniary gain derived from the offense by the offender.

(9)  Any higher or lower amount specifically authorized by statute.

18c1101v

(Mar. 22, 1974, P.L.210, No.44, eff. imd.; Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days; Mar. 25, 1988, P.L.262, No.31, eff. 60 days; Mar. 9, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.964, No.3, eff. 60 days; Mar. 15, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.970, No.5, eff. 60 days)

 

1995 Amendments.  Act 5, 1st Sp.Sess., overlooked the amendment by Act 3, 1st Sp.Sess., but the amendments do not conflict in substance and both have been given effect in setting forth the text of section 1101.

Cross References.  Section 1101 is referred to in sections 910, 3308 of this title; section 1571 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c1102s

§ 1102.  Sentence for murder, murder of unborn child and murder of law enforcement officer.

(a)  First degree.--

(1)  Except as provided under section 1102.1 (relating to sentence of persons under the age of 18 for murder, murder of an unborn child and murder of a law enforcement officer), a person who has been convicted of a murder of the first degree or of murder of a law enforcement officer of the first degree shall be sentenced to death or to a term of life imprisonment in accordance with 42 Pa.C.S. § 9711 (relating to sentencing procedure for murder of the first degree).

(2)  The sentence for a person who has been convicted of first degree murder of an unborn child shall be the same as the sentence for murder of the first degree, except that the death penalty shall not be imposed. This paragraph shall not affect the determination of an aggravating circumstance under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9711(d)(17) for the killing of a pregnant woman.

(b)  Second degree.--Except as provided under section 1102.1, a person who has been convicted of murder of the second degree, of second degree murder of an unborn child or of second degree murder of a law enforcement officer shall be sentenced to a term of life imprisonment.

(c)  Attempt, solicitation and conspiracy.--Notwithstanding section 1103(1) (relating to sentence of imprisonment for felony), a person who has been convicted of attempt, solicitation or conspiracy to commit murder, murder of an unborn child or murder of a law enforcement officer where serious bodily injury results may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 40 years. Where serious bodily injury does not result, the person may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 20 years.

(d)  Third degree.--Notwithstanding section 1103, a person who has been convicted of murder of the third degree or of third degree murder of an unborn child shall be sentenced to a term which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 40 years.

18c1102v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; Mar. 9, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.964, No.3, eff. 60 days; Mar. 15, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.970, No.5, eff. 60 days; Oct. 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, eff. 180 days; Oct. 17, 2008, P.L.1628, No.131, eff. 60 days; Oct. 25, 2012, P.L.1655, No.204, eff. imd.)

 

2012 Amendment.  Act 204 amended subsecs. (a)(1) and (b).

2008 Amendment.  Act 131 amended the section heading and subsecs. (a), (b) and (c).

Cross References.  Section 1102 is referred to in sections 106, 2604 of this title.

18c1102.1s

§ 1102.1.  Sentence of persons under the age of 18 for murder, murder of an unborn child and murder of a law enforcement officer.

(a)  First degree murder.--A person who has been convicted after June 24, 2012, of a murder of the first degree, first degree murder of an unborn child or murder of a law enforcement officer of the first degree and who was under the age of 18 at the time of the commission of the offense shall be sentenced as follows:

(1)  A person who at the time of the commission of the offense was 15 years of age or older shall be sentenced to a term of life imprisonment without parole, or a term of imprisonment, the minimum of which shall be at least 35 years to life.

(2)  A person who at the time of the commission of the offense was under 15 years of age shall be sentenced to a term of life imprisonment without parole, or a term of imprisonment, the minimum of which shall be at least 25 years to life.

(b)  Notice.--Reasonable notice to the defendant of the Commonwealth's intention to seek a sentence of life imprisonment without parole under subsection (a) shall be provided after conviction and before sentencing.

(c)  Second degree murder.--A person who has been convicted after June 24, 2012, of a murder of the second degree, second degree murder of an unborn child or murder of a law enforcement officer of the second degree and who was under the age of 18 at the time of the commission of the offense shall be sentenced as follows:

(1)  A person who at the time of the commission of the offense was 15 years of age or older shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment the minimum of which shall be at least 30 years to life.

(2)  A person who at the time of the commission of the offense was under 15 years of age shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment the minimum of which shall be at least 20 years to life.

(d)  Findings.--In determining whether to impose a sentence of life without parole under subsection (a), the court shall consider and make findings on the record regarding the following:

(1)  The impact of the offense on each victim, including oral and written victim impact statements made or submitted by family members of the victim detailing the physical, psychological and economic effects of the crime on the victim and the victim's family. A victim impact statement may include comment on the sentence of the defendant.

(2)  The impact of the offense on the community.

(3)  The threat to the safety of the public or any individual posed by the defendant.

(4)  The nature and circumstances of the offense committed by the defendant.

(5)  The degree of the defendant's culpability.

(6)  Guidelines for sentencing and resentencing adopted by the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing.

(7)  Age-related characteristics of the defendant, including:

(i)  Age.

(ii)  Mental capacity.

(iii)  Maturity.

(iv)  The degree of criminal sophistication exhibited by the defendant.

(v)  The nature and extent of any prior delinquent or criminal history, including the success or failure of any previous attempts by the court to rehabilitate the defendant.

(vi)  Probation or institutional reports.

(vii)  Other relevant factors.

(e)  Minimum sentence.--Nothing under this section shall prevent the sentencing court from imposing a minimum sentence greater than that provided in this section. Sentencing guidelines promulgated by the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing may not supersede the mandatory minimum sentences provided under this section.

(f)  Appeal by Commonwealth.--If a sentencing court refuses to apply this section where applicable, the Commonwealth shall have the right to appellate review of the action of the sentencing court. The appellate court shall vacate the sentence and remand the case to the sentencing court for imposition of a sentence in accordance with this section if it finds that the sentence was imposed in violation of this section.

18c1102.1v

(Oct. 25, 2012, P.L.1655, No.204, eff. imd.)

 

2012 Amendment.  Act 204 added section 1102.1.

Cross References.  Section 1102.1 is referred to in section 1102 of this title; section 6139 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c1103s

§ 1103.  Sentence of imprisonment for felony.

Except as provided in 42 Pa.C.S. § 9714 (relating to sentences for second and subsequent offenses), a person who has been convicted of a felony may be sentenced to imprisonment as follows:

(1)  In the case of a felony of the first degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 20 years.

(2)  In the case of a felony of the second degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court at not more than ten years.

(3)  In the case of a felony of the third degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court at not more than seven years.

18c1103v

(Oct. 11, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.1058, No.21, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 1103 is referred to in sections 1102, 2702.1, 3121, 3123 of this title; sections 9714, 9718.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 1571 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c1104s

§ 1104.  Sentence of imprisonment for misdemeanors.

A person who has been convicted of a misdemeanor may be sentenced to imprisonment for a definite term which shall be fixed by the court and shall be not more than:

(1)  Five years in the case of a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(2)  Two years in the case of a misdemeanor of the second degree.

(3)  One year in the case of a misdemeanor of the third degree.

18c1104v

 

Cross References.  Section 1104 is referred to in section 1571 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c1105s

§ 1105.  Sentence of imprisonment for summary offenses.

A person who has been convicted of a summary offense may be sentenced to imprisonment for a term which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 90 days.

18c1106s

§ 1106.  Restitution for injuries to person or property.

(a)  General rule.--Upon conviction for any crime wherein property has been stolen, converted or otherwise unlawfully obtained, or its value substantially decreased as a direct result of the crime, or wherein the victim suffered personal injury directly resulting from the crime, the offender shall be sentenced to make restitution in addition to the punishment prescribed therefor.

(b)  Condition of probation or parole.--Whenever restitution has been ordered pursuant to subsection (a) and the offender has been placed on probation or parole, his compliance with such order may be made a condition of such probation or parole.

(c)  Mandatory restitution.--

(1)  The court shall order full restitution:

(i)  Regardless of the current financial resources of the defendant, so as to provide the victim with the fullest compensation for the loss. The court shall not reduce a restitution award by any amount that the victim has received from the Crime Victim's Compensation Board or other governmental agency but shall order the defendant to pay any restitution ordered for loss previously compensated by the board to the Crime Victim's Compensation Fund or other designated account when the claim involves a government agency in addition to or in place of the board. The court shall not reduce a restitution award by any amount that the victim has received from an insurance company but shall order the defendant to pay any restitution ordered for loss previously compensated by an insurance company to the insurance company.

(ii)  If restitution to more than one person is set at the same time, the court shall set priorities of payment. However, when establishing priorities, the court shall order payment in the following order:

(A)  The victim.

(B)  The Crime Victim's Compensation Board.

(C)  Any other government agency which has provided reimbursement to the victim as a result of the defendant's criminal conduct.

(D)  Any insurance company which has provided reimbursement to the victim as a result of the defendant's criminal conduct.

(2)  At the time of sentencing the court shall specify the amount and method of restitution. In determining the amount and method of restitution, the court:

(i)  Shall consider the extent of injury suffered by the victim, the victim's request for restitution as presented to the district attorney in accordance with paragraph (4) and such other matters as it deems appropriate.

(ii)  May order restitution in a lump sum, by monthly installments or according to such other schedule as it deems just.

(iii)  Shall not order incarceration of a defendant for failure to pay restitution if the failure results from the offender's inability to pay.

(iv)  Shall consider any other preexisting orders imposed on the defendant, including, but not limited to, orders imposed under this title or any other title.

(v)  (Deleted by amendment).

(3)  The court may, at any time or upon the recommendation of the district attorney that is based on information received from the victim and the probation section of the county or other agent designated by the county commissioners of the county with the approval of the president judge to collect restitution, alter or amend any order of restitution made pursuant to paragraph (2), provided, however, that the court states its reasons and conclusions as a matter of record for any change or amendment to any previous order.

(4) (i)  It shall be the responsibility of the district attorneys of the respective counties to make a recommendation to the court at or prior to the time of sentencing as to the amount of restitution to be ordered. This recommendation shall be based upon information solicited by the district attorney and received from the victim.

(ii)  Where the district attorney has solicited information from the victims as provided in subparagraph (i) and has received no response, the district attorney shall, based on other available information, make a recommendation to the court for restitution.

(iii)  The district attorney may, as appropriate, recommend to the court that the restitution order be altered or amended as provided in paragraph (3).

(d)  Limitations on district justices.--Restitution ordered by a magisterial district judge shall be limited to the return of the actual property or its undisputed dollar amount or, where the claim for restitution does not exceed the civil jurisdictional limit specified in 42 Pa.C.S. § 1515(a)(3) (relating to jurisdiction) and is disputed as to amount, the magisterial district judge shall determine and order the dollar amount of restitution to be made.

(e)  Restitution payments and records.--Restitution, when ordered by a judge, shall be made by the offender to the probation section of the county in which he was convicted or to another agent designated by the county commissioners with the approval of the president judge of the county to collect restitution according to the order of the court or, when ordered by a magisterial district judge, shall be made to the magisterial district judge. The probation section or other agent designated by the county commissioners of the county with the approval of the president judge to collect restitution and the magisterial district judge shall maintain records of the restitution order and its satisfaction and shall forward to the victim the property or payments made pursuant to the restitution order.

(f)  Noncompliance with restitution order.--Whenever the offender shall fail to make restitution as provided in the order of a judge, the probation section or other agent designated by the county commissioners of the county with the approval of the president judge to collect restitution shall notify the court within 20 days of such failure. Whenever the offender shall fail to make restitution within 20 days to a magisterial district judge, as ordered, the magisterial district judge shall declare the offender in contempt and forward the case to the court of common pleas. Upon such notice of failure to make restitution, or upon receipt of the contempt decision from a magisterial district judge, the court shall order a hearing to determine if the offender is in contempt of court or has violated his probation or parole.

(g)  Preservation of private remedies.--No judgment or order of restitution shall debar the owner of the property or the victim who sustained personal injury, by appropriate action, to recover from the offender as otherwise provided by law, provided that any civil award shall be reduced by the amount paid under the criminal judgment.

(h)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Crime."  Any offense punishable under this title or by a magisterial district judge.

"Injury to property."  Loss of real or personal property, including negotiable instruments, or decrease in its value, directly resulting from the crime.

"Offender."  Any person who has been found guilty of any crime.

"Personal injury."  Actual bodily harm, including pregnancy, directly resulting from the crime.

"Property."  Any real or personal property, including currency and negotiable instruments, of the victim.

"Restitution."  The return of the property of the victim or payments in cash or the equivalent thereof pursuant to an order of the court.

"Victim."  As defined in section 479.1 of the act of April 9, 1929 (P.L.177, No.175), known as The Administrative Code of 1929. The term includes the Crime Victim's Compensation Fund if compensation has been paid by the Crime Victim's Compensation Fund to the victim and any insurance company that has compensated the victim for loss under an insurance contract.

18c1106v

(June 18, 1976, P.L.394, No.86, eff. 60 days; Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days; May 3, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.999, No.12, eff. 60 days; Dec. 3, 1998, P.L.933, No.121, eff. imd.; Nov. 30, 2004, P.L.1618, No.207, eff. 60 days)

 

2004 Amendment.  Act 207 amended subsecs. (d), (e) and (f) and the def. of "crime" in subsec. (h). See sections 28 and 29 of Act 207 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to applicability and construction of law.

1998 Amendment.  Act 121 amended subsecs. (a), (c), (e) and (f).

1995 Amendment.  Act 12, 1st Sp.Sess., amended subsec. (c) and the def. of "victim" in subsec. (h)

1978 Amendment.  Act 53 amended subsecs. (d), (e), (f) and (h).

1976 Amendment.  Act 86 added section 1106.

References in Text.  Section 479.1 of the act of April 9, 1929 (P.L.177, No.175), known as The Administrative Code of 1929, referred to in the def. of "victim," was repealed by the act of November 24, 1998, P.L.882, No.111. The subject matter is now contained in Act 111.

Cross References.  Section 1106 is referred to in sections 910, 3926, 4116 of this title; sections 8316.1, 9728 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 6126 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c1107s

§ 1107.  Restitution for theft of timber.

Any person convicted for the theft of standing timber under section 3921 (relating to theft by unlawful taking or disposition) shall, in addition to any other sentence imposed, be sentenced to pay the owner of the timber restitution in an amount twice the value of the timber taken.

18c1107v

(Oct. 11, 1984, P.L.892, No.173, eff. imd.)

 

1984 Amendment.  Act 173 added section 1107.

Cross References.  Section 1107 is referred to in section 8311 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c1107.1s

§ 1107.1.  Restitution for identity theft.

(a)  General rule.--The court shall, in addition to any other restitution sentence or order authorized by law, sentence a person convicted of a violation of section 4106 (relating to access device fraud) or 4120 (relating to identity theft) to make restitution for all reasonable expenses incurred by the victim or on the victim's behalf:

(1)  to investigate theft of the victim's identity;

(2)  to bring or defend civil or criminal actions related to theft of the victim's identity; or

(3)  to take other efforts to correct the victim's credit record or negative credit reports related to theft of the victim's identity.

(b)  Types of expenses.--The types of expenses recoverable under this section include, but are not limited to:

(1)  fees for professional services by attorneys or accountants;

(2)  fees and costs imposed by credit bureaus, associated with efforts to correct the victim's credit record, incurred in private investigations or associated with contesting unwarranted debt collections; and

(3)  court costs and filing fees.

18c1107.1v

(Sept. 18, 2009, P.L.391, No.42, eff. 60 days)

 

2009 Amendment.  Act 42 added section 1107.1.

18c1108s

§ 1108.  District attorneys' standing and interest in prisoner litigation.

The district attorney shall receive written notice of, and shall have automatic standing and a legal interest in, any proceeding which may involve the release or nonadmission of county prisoners, delinquents or detainees due to the fact, duration or other conditions of custody. In addition to the district attorney's rights in such a proceeding, the district attorney may seek any equitable relief necessary to protect the district attorney's interest in the continued institutional custody and admission of county prisoners, delinquents or detainees.

18c1108v

(Mar. 25, 1988, P.L.262, No.31, eff. 60 days)

 

1988 Amendment.  Act 31 added section 1108.

18c1109s

§ 1109.  Costs.

In addition to any other sentence imposed, the court may order an offender to pay the cost of any reward paid for the apprehension and conviction of the offender.

18c1109v

(Sept. 26, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.1056, No.20, eff. 60 days)

 

1995 Amendment.  Act 20, 1st Sp.Sess., added section 1109. Section 4 of Act 20 provided that section 1109 shall apply to sentences imposed on or after the effective date of Act 20.

18c1110s

§ 1110.  Restitution for cleanup of clandestine laboratories.

(a)  General rule.--When any person is convicted of an offense under The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act involving the manufacture of a controlled substance, the court shall order the person to make restitution for the costs incurred in the cleanup, including labor costs, equipment and supplies, of any clandestine laboratory used by the person to manufacture the controlled substance.

(b)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Clandestine laboratory."  A location or site, including buildings or vehicles, in which glassware, heating devices, precursors or related reagents or solvents which are intended to be used or are used to unlawfully manufacture a controlled substance are located.

"Cleanup."  Actions necessary to contain, collect, control, identify, analyze, disassemble, treat, remove or otherwise disperse all substances and materials in a clandestine laboratory, including those found to be hazardous waste and any contamination caused by those substances or materials.

"The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act."  The act of April 14, 1972 (P.L.233, No.64), known as The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act.

18c1110v

(Nov. 19, 2004, P.L.848, No.109, eff. 60 days)

 

2004 Amendment.  Act 109 added section 1110.

18c1301h

 

 

CHAPTER 13

AUTHORITY OF COURT IN SENTENCING

(Transferred)

 

Subchapter

A.  General Provisions (Transferred)

B.  Sentencing Authority (Transferred)

C.  Sentencing Alternatives (Transferred)

D.  Informational Basis of Sentence (Transferred)

E.  Imposition of Sentence (Transferred)

F.  Further Judicial Action (Transferred)

G.  Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing (Repealed or

    Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Chapter 13 was renumbered and transferred to Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

Prior Provisions.  The number and heading of Chapter 13 were added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334. Unless otherwise noted, the remaining provisions of Chapter 13 were added December 30, 1974, P.L.1052, No.345.

 

 

SUBCHAPTER A

GENERAL PROVISIONS

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter A (§ 1301) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter A of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1311h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER B

SENTENCING AUTHORITY

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter B (§§ 1311 & 1312) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter B of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1321h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER C

SENTENCING ALTERNATIVES

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter C (§§ 1321 - 1326) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter C of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1331h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER D

INFORMATIONAL BASIS OF SENTENCE

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter D (§§ 1331 - 1337) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter D of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1351h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER E

IMPOSITION OF SENTENCE

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter E (§§ 1351 - 1362) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter E of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1371h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER F

FURTHER JUDICIAL ACTION

(Transferred)

 

Transfer Note.  Subchapter F (§§ 1371 & 1372) was renumbered and transferred to Subchapter F of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days.

18c1381h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER G

PENNSYLVANIA COMMISSION ON SENTENCING

(Repealed or Transferred)

 

Repeal and Transfer Note.  Subchapter G (§§ 1381 - 1386) was repealed except for section 1386 which was renumbered 9781 and transferred to Subchapter G of Chapter 97 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure) October 5, 1980, P.L.693, No.142, effective in 60 days. The subject matter of former sections 1381 through 1385 is now contained in Subchapter F of Chapter 21 of Title 42.

Prior Provisions.  Subchapter G was added November 26, 1978, P.L.1316, No.319, effective January 1, 1979. Former Subchapter G, which related to sentencing council, was added December 30, 1974, P.L.1052, No.345, and repealed November 26, 1978, P.L.1316, No.319, effective January 1, 1979.

18c2101h

 

 

PART II

DEFINITION OF SPECIFIC OFFENSES

 

Article

   A.  Offenses Against Existence or Stability of Government

   B.  Offenses Involving Danger to the Person

   C.  Offenses Against Property

   D.  Offenses Against the Family

   E.  Offenses Against Public Administration

   F.  Offenses Against Public Order and Decency

   G.  Miscellaneous Offenses

 

Enactment.  Part II was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

 

 

ARTICLE A

OFFENSES AGAINST EXISTENCE OR STABILITY

OF GOVERNMENT

 

Chapter

  21.  Offenses Against the Flag

 

 

CHAPTER 21

OFFENSES AGAINST THE FLAG

 

Sec.

2101.  Display of flag at public meetings.

2102.  Desecration of flag.

2103.  Insults to national or Commonwealth flag.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 21 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

18c2101s

§ 2101.  Display of flag at public meetings.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of a summary offense if, being directly or indirectly in charge of any public gathering, in any place, he fails at such gathering to display publicly and visibly the flag of the United States reasonably clean and in good repair.

(b)  Exceptions.--

(1)  Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to gatherings for religious worship.

(2)  The provisions of subsection (a) of this section do not prohibit the exhibition of torn, soiled or worn flags of the United States which have historical significance when exhibited in conjunction with the type of flag required by subsection (a) of this section.

18c2102s

§ 2102.  Desecration of flag.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of a misdemeanor of the third degree if, in any manner, he:

(1)  for exhibition or display places any marks, writing or design of any nature or any advertisement upon any flag;

(2)  exposes to public view any such marked or defiled flag;

(3)  manufactures, sells, exposes for sale, gives away, or has in his possession for any of such purposes any article which uses the flag for the purposes of advertisement, sale or trade; or

(4)  publicly or privately mutilates, defaces, defiles, or tramples upon, or casts contempt in any manner upon any flag.

(b)  Exception.--Subsection (a) of this section does not apply:

(1)  To any act permitted by the statutes of the United States, or by the regulations of the armed forces of the United States.

(2)  In a case where the government of the United States has granted the use of such flag, standard, color, or ensign as a trademark.

(3)  To any writing or instrument, or stationery for use in correspondence on any of which shall be printed, painted, or placed said flag, disconnected from any advertisement for the purpose of sale or trade.

(4)  To any patriotic or political demonstration or decorations.

(c)  Definition.--As used in this section the word "flag" shall include any flag, standard, color, ensign or any picture or representation of any thereof, made of any substance or represented on any substance and of any size, purporting to be a flag, standard, color or ensign of the United States or of the Commonwealth, or a picture or a representation of any thereof, upon which shall be shown the colors or any color, or any combination of colors, or either the stars or the stripes, or the stars and the stripes, in any number of either thereof, or anything which the person seeing the same, may reasonably believe the same to represent the flag, colors, standard or ensign of the United States or of the Commonwealth.

18c2103s

§ 2103.  Insults to national or Commonwealth flag.

A person is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree if he maliciously takes down, defiles, injures, removes or in any manner damages, insults, or destroys any American flag or the flag of the Commonwealth which is displayed anywhere.

18c2301h

 

 

ARTICLE B

OFFENSES INVOLVING DANGER TO THE PERSON

 

Chapter

  23.  General Provisions

  25.  Criminal Homicide

  26.  Crimes Against Unborn Child

  27.  Assault

  29.  Kidnapping

  30.  Trafficking of Persons

  31.  Sexual Offenses

  32.  Abortion

 

 

CHAPTER 23

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Sec.

2301.  Definitions.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 23 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

18c2301s

§ 2301.  Definitions.

Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent provisions of this article which are applicable to specific chapters or other provisions of this article, the following words and phrases, when used in this article shall have, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the meanings given to them in this section:

"Bodily injury."  Impairment of physical condition or substantial pain.

"Deadly weapon."  Any firearm, whether loaded or unloaded, or any device designed as a weapon and capable of producing death or serious bodily injury, or any other device or instrumentality which, in the manner in which it is used or intended to be used, is calculated or likely to produce death or serious bodily injury.

"Serious bodily injury."  Bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

"Serious provocation."  Conduct sufficient to excite an intense passion in a reasonable person.

18c2301v

 

Cross References.  Section 2301 is referred to in sections 2602, 3101, 5106, 5131 of this title; section 6338.1 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 6302, 6355 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2501h

 

 

CHAPTER 25

CRIMINAL HOMICIDE

 

Sec.

2501.  Criminal homicide.

2502.  Murder.

2503.  Voluntary manslaughter.

2504.  Involuntary manslaughter.

2505.  Causing or aiding suicide.

2506.  Drug delivery resulting in death.

2507.  Criminal homicide of law enforcement officer.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 25 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 25 is referred to in sections 911, 2602 of this title; section 5432 of Title 20 (Decedents, Estates and Fiduciaries); sections 2511, 5329, 6344 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 5985.1, 6302 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2501s

§ 2501.  Criminal homicide.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of criminal homicide if he intentionally, knowingly, recklessly or negligently causes the death of another human being.

(b)  Classification.--Criminal homicide shall be classified as murder, voluntary manslaughter, or involuntary manslaughter.

18c2501v

 

Cross References.  Section 2501 is referred to in section 5708 of this title; section 4503 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2502s

§ 2502.  Murder.

(a)  Murder of the first degree.--A criminal homicide constitutes murder of the first degree when it is committed by an intentional killing.

(b)  Murder of the second degree.--A criminal homicide constitutes murder of the second degree when it is committed while defendant was engaged as a principal or an accomplice in the perpetration of a felony.

(c)  Murder of the third degree.--All other kinds of murder shall be murder of the third degree. Murder of the third degree is a felony of the first degree.

(d)  Definitions.--As used in this section the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Fireman."  Includes any employee or member of a municipal fire department or volunteer fire company.

"Hijacking."  Any unlawful or unauthorized seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence or threat of force or violence.

"Intentional killing."  Killing by means of poison, or by lying in wait, or by any other kind of willful, deliberate and premeditated killing.

"Perpetration of a felony."  The act of the defendant in engaging in or being an accomplice in the commission of, or an attempt to commit, or flight after committing, or attempting to commit robbery, rape, or deviate sexual intercourse by force or threat of force, arson, burglary or kidnapping.

"Principal."  A person who is the actor or perpetrator of the crime.

18c2502v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.84, No.39, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2502 is referred to in sections 2506, 2507, 2602, 5702, 5708, 6105 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports); section 5329 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 1515, 5551, 9711.1, 9718, 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); sections 3903, 4103, 6124, 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2503s

§ 2503.  Voluntary manslaughter.

(a)  General rule.--A person who kills an individual without lawful justification commits voluntary manslaughter if at the time of the killing he is acting under a sudden and intense passion resulting from serious provocation by:

(1)  the individual killed; or

(2)  another whom the actor endeavors to kill, but he negligently or accidentally causes the death of the individual killed.

(b)  Unreasonable belief killing justifiable.--A person who intentionally or knowingly kills an individual commits voluntary manslaughter if at the time of the killing he believes the circumstances to be such that, if they existed, would justify the killing under Chapter 5 of this title (relating to general principles of justification), but his belief is unreasonable.

(c)  Grading.--Voluntary manslaughter is a felony of the first degree.

18c2503v

(Nov. 17, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess., P.L.1144, No.36, eff. 60 days)

 

1995 Amendment.  Act 36, 1st Sp.Sess., amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 2503 is referred to in sections 5702, 5708, 6105 of this title; sections 1515, 9711, 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); sections 3903, 4103, 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2504s

§ 2504.  Involuntary manslaughter.

(a)  General rule.--A person is guilty of involuntary manslaughter when as a direct result of the doing of an unlawful act in a reckless or grossly negligent manner, or the doing of a lawful act in a reckless or grossly negligent manner, he causes the death of another person.

(b)  Grading.--Involuntary manslaughter is a misdemeanor of the first degree. Where the victim is under 12 years of age and is in the care, custody or control of the person who caused the death, involuntary manslaughter is a felony of the second degree.

18c2504v

(July 6, 1995, P.L.251, No.31, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2504 is referred to in sections 2711, 6105 of this title; section 1611 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c2505s

§ 2505.  Causing or aiding suicide.

(a)  Causing suicide as criminal homicide.--A person may be convicted of criminal homicide for causing another to commit suicide only if he intentionally causes such suicide by force, duress or deception.

(b)  Aiding or soliciting suicide as an independent offense.--A person who intentionally aids or solicits another to commit suicide is guilty of a felony of the second degree if his conduct causes such suicide or an attempted suicide, and otherwise of a misdemeanor of the second degree.

18c2506s

§ 2506.  Drug delivery resulting in death.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a felony of the first degree if the person intentionally administers, dispenses, delivers, gives, prescribes, sells or distributes any controlled substance or counterfeit controlled substance in violation of section 13(a)(14) or (30) of the act of April 14, 1972 (P.L.233, No.64), known as The Controlled Substance, Drug, Device and Cosmetic Act, and another person dies as a result of using the substance.

(b)  Penalty.--

(1)  A person convicted under subsection (a) shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment which shall be fixed by the court at not more than 40 years.

(2)  Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a person convicted under section 2502(c) (relating to murder) when the victim is less than 13 years of age and the conduct arises out of the same criminal act.

(c)  Proof of sentencing.--(Deleted by amendment).

(d)  Authority of court in sentencing.--(Deleted by amendment).

(e)  Appeal by Commonwealth.--(Deleted by amendment).

(f)  Forfeiture.--Assets against which a forfeiture petition has been filed and is pending or against which the Commonwealth has indicated an intention to file a forfeiture petition shall not be subject to a fine. Nothing in this section shall prevent a fine from being imposed on assets which have been subject to an unsuccessful forfeiture petition.

18c2506v

(Dec. 22, 1989, P.L.773, No.109, eff. imd.; Feb. 18, 1998, P.L.102, No.19, eff. 60 days; July 7, 2011, P.L.220, No.40, eff. 60 days; June 18, 2014, P.L.741, No.56, eff. 60 days)

 

2014 Amendment.  Act 56 amended subsec. (b).

Cross References.  Section 2506 is referred to in sections 3308, 5702 of this title; section 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); sections 3903, 4103 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2507s

§ 2507.  Criminal homicide of law enforcement officer.

(a)  Murder of a law enforcement officer of the first degree.--A person commits murder of a law enforcement officer of the first degree who intentionally kills a law enforcement officer while in the performance of duty knowing the victim is a law enforcement officer.

(b)  Murder of a law enforcement officer of the second degree.--A person commits murder of a law enforcement officer of the second degree who engages as a principal or an accomplice in the perpetration of a felony during which a law enforcement officer is killed while in the performance of duty.

(c)  Manslaughter of a law enforcement officer in the first degree.--A person commits a felony in the first degree who does any of the following:

(1)  Without lawful justification kills a law enforcement officer while in the performance of duty and with knowledge that the victim was a law enforcement officer, if at the time of the killing:

(i)  the person is acting under a sudden and intense passion resulting from serious provocation by the victim killed; or

(ii)  the person is acting under a sudden and intense passion resulting from serious provocation by another individual whom the actor endeavors to kill, but the person negligently or accidentally causes the death of the victim.

(2)  Intentionally or knowingly kills a law enforcement officer while in the performance of duty and with knowledge that the victim was a law enforcement officer, if at the time of the killing the person believes the circumstances to be such that, if they existed, would justify the killing under Chapter 5 (relating to general principles of justification), but his belief is unreasonable.

(d)  Manslaughter of a law enforcement officer in the second degree.--A person commits a felony of the second degree who, as a direct result of the doing of an unlawful or lawful act in a reckless or grossly negligent manner, causes the death of a law enforcement officer while in the performance of duty and the person knew or should have known the victim was a law enforcement officer.

(e)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Law enforcement officer."  This term shall have the same meaning as the term "peace officer" is given under section 501 (relating to definitions).

"Perpetration of a felony."  As defined under section 2502(d) (relating to murder).

18c2507v

(Oct. 17, 2008, P.L.1628, No.131, eff. 60 days)

 

2008 Amendment.  Act 131 added section 2507.

Cross References.  Section 2507 is referred to in section 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2601h

 

 

CHAPTER 26

CRIMES AGAINST UNBORN CHILD

 

Sec.

2601.  Short title of chapter.

2602.  Definitions.

2603.  Criminal homicide of unborn child.

2604.  Murder of unborn child.

2605.  Voluntary manslaughter of unborn child.

2606.  Aggravated assault of unborn child.

2607.  Culpability.

2608.  Nonliability and defenses.

2609.  Construction.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 26 was added October 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, effective in 180 days.

18c2601s

§ 2601.  Short title of chapter.

This chapter shall be known and may be cited as the Crimes Against the Unborn Child Act.

18c2602s

§ 2602.  Definitions.

The following words and phrases when used in this chapter shall have the meanings given to them in this section unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Abortion."  As defined in section 3203 (relating to definitions).

"Intentional killing."  Killing by means of poison, or by lying in wait, or by any other kind of willful, deliberate and premeditated killing.

"Murder."  As used in this chapter, the term includes the same element of malice which is required to prove murder under Chapter 25 (relating to criminal homicide).

"Perpetration of a felony."  As defined in section 2502(d) (relating to murder).

"Principal."  As defined in section 2502(d) (relating to murder).

"Serious bodily injury."  Bodily injury which creates a substantial risk of death or which causes serious, permanent disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

"Serious provocation."  As defined in section 2301 (relating to definitions).

"Unborn child."  As defined in section 3203 (relating to definitions).

18c2603s

§ 2603.  Criminal homicide of unborn child.

(a)  Offense defined.--An individual commits criminal homicide of an unborn child if the individual intentionally, knowingly, recklessly or negligently causes the death of an unborn child in violation of section 2604 (relating to murder of unborn child) or 2605 (relating to voluntary manslaughter of unborn child).

(b)  Classification.--Criminal homicide of an unborn child shall be classified as murder of an unborn child or voluntary manslaughter of an unborn child.

18c2604s

§ 2604.  Murder of unborn child.

(a)  First degree murder of unborn child.--

(1)  A criminal homicide of an unborn child constitutes first degree murder of an unborn child when it is committed by an intentional killing.

(2)  The penalty for first degree murder of an unborn child shall be imposed in accordance with section 1102(a)(2) (relating to sentence for murder and murder of an unborn child).

(b)  Second degree murder of unborn child.--

(1)  A criminal homicide of an unborn child constitutes second degree murder of an unborn child when it is committed while the defendant was engaged as a principal or an accomplice in the perpetration of a felony.

(2)  The penalty for second degree murder of an unborn child shall be the same as for murder of the second degree.

(c)  Third degree murder of unborn child.--

(1)  All other kinds of murder of an unborn child shall be third degree murder of an unborn child.

(2)  The penalty for third degree murder of an unborn child is the same as the penalty for murder of the third degree.

18c2604v

 

Cross References.  Section 2604 is referred to in section 2603 of this title; section 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2605s

§ 2605.  Voluntary manslaughter of unborn child.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person who kills an unborn child without lawful justification commits voluntary manslaughter of an unborn child if at the time of the killing he is acting under a sudden and intense passion resulting from serious provocation by:

(1)  the mother of the unborn child whom the actor endeavors to kill, but he negligently or accidentally causes the death of the unborn child; or

(2)  another whom the actor endeavors to kill, but he negligently or accidentally causes the death of the unborn child.

(b)  Unreasonable belief killing justifiable.--A person who intentionally or knowingly kills an unborn child commits voluntary manslaughter of an unborn child if at the time of the killing he believes the circumstances to be such that, if they existed, would justify the killing under Chapter 5 (relating to general principles of justification) but his belief is unreasonable.

(c)  Penalty.--The penalty for voluntary manslaughter of an unborn child shall be the same as the penalty for voluntary manslaughter.

18c2605v

 

Cross References.  Section 2605 is referred to in section 2603 of this title.

18c2606s

§ 2606.  Aggravated assault of unborn child.

(a)  Offense.--A person commits aggravated assault of an unborn child if he attempts to cause serious bodily injury to the unborn child or causes such injury intentionally, knowingly or recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the life of the unborn child.

(b)  Grading.--Aggravated assault of an unborn child is a felony of the first degree.

18c2606v

 

Cross References.  Section 2606 is referred to in section 108 of this title; section 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2607s

§ 2607.  Culpability.

In any criminal prosecution pursuant to this chapter, the provisions of Chapter 3 (relating to culpability) shall apply, except that:

(1)  The term "different person" as used in section 303(b) and (c) (relating to causal relationship between conduct and result) shall also include an unborn child.

(2)  The term "victim" as used in section 311 (relating to consent) shall not include the mother of the unborn child.

18c2608s

§ 2608.  Nonliability and defenses.

(a)  Nonliability.--Nothing in this chapter shall impose criminal liability:

(1)  For acts committed during any abortion or attempted abortion, whether lawful or unlawful, in which the pregnant woman cooperated or consented.

(2)  For the consensual or good faith performance of medical practice, including medical procedures, diagnostic testing or therapeutic treatment, the use of an intrauterine device or birth control pill to inhibit or prevent ovulation, fertilization or the implantation of a fertilized ovum within the uterus.

(3)  Upon the pregnant woman in regard to crimes against her unborn child.

(b)  Defenses.--In any prosecution pursuant to this chapter, it shall be a defense that:

(1)  The use of force that caused death or serious bodily injury to the unborn child would have been justified pursuant to Chapter 5 (relating to general principles of justification) if it caused death or serious bodily injury to the mother.

(2)  Death or serious bodily injury to the unborn child was caused by the use of force which would have been justified pursuant to Chapter 5 if the same level of force was used upon or toward the mother.

18c2609s

§ 2609.  Construction.

The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to prohibit the prosecution of an offender under any other provision of law.

18c2701h

 

 

CHAPTER 27

ASSAULT

 

Sec.

2701.  Simple assault.

2702.  Aggravated assault.

2702.1. Assault of law enforcement officer.

2703.  Assault by prisoner.

2703.1. Aggravated harassment by prisoner.

2704.  Assault by life prisoner.

2705.  Recklessly endangering another person.

2706.  Terroristic threats.

2707.  Propulsion of missiles into an occupied vehicle or onto a roadway.

2707.1. Discharge of a firearm into an occupied structure.

2707.2. Paintball guns and paintball markers.

2708.  Use of tear or noxious gas in labor disputes.

2709.  Harassment.

2709.1. Stalking.

2710.  Ethnic intimidation.

2711.  Probable cause arrests in domestic violence cases.

2712.  Assault on sports official.

2713.  Neglect of care-dependent person.

2714.  Unauthorized administration of intoxicant.

2715.  Threat to use weapons of mass destruction.

2716.  Weapons of mass destruction.

2717.  Terrorism.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 27 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 27 is referred to in section 5985.1 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2701s

§ 2701.  Simple assault.

(a)  Offense defined.--Except as provided under section 2702 (relating to aggravated assault), a person is guilty of assault if he:

(1)  attempts to cause or intentionally, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury to another;

(2)  negligently causes bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon;

(3)  attempts by physical menace to put another in fear of imminent serious bodily injury; or

(4)  conceals or attempts to conceal a hypodermic needle on his person and intentionally or knowingly penetrates a law enforcement officer or an officer or an employee of a correctional institution, county jail or prison, detention facility or mental hospital during the course of an arrest or any search of the person.

(b)  Grading.--Simple assault is a misdemeanor of the second degree unless committed:

(1)  in a fight or scuffle entered into by mutual consent, in which case it is a misdemeanor of the third degree; or

(2)  against a child under 12 years of age by a person 18 years of age or older, in which case it is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

18c2701v

(Dec. 19, 1988, P.L.1275, No.158, eff. 60 days; June 22, 2001, P.L.605, No.48, eff. 60 days; Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1391, No.172, eff. 60 days; Dec. 18, 2013, P.L.1198, No.118, eff. Jan. 1, 2014)

 

2013 Amendment.  Act 118 amended subsecs. (a) and (b)(2).

Cross References.  Section 2701 is referred to in sections 2709.1, 2711, 2712, 6105.1 of this title; section 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 4503 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2702s

§ 2702.  Aggravated assault.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of aggravated assault if he:

(1)  attempts to cause serious bodily injury to another, or causes such injury intentionally, knowingly or recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the value of human life;

(2)  attempts to cause or intentionally, knowingly or recklessly causes serious bodily injury to any of the officers, agents, employees or other persons enumerated in subsection (c) or to an employee of an agency, company or other entity engaged in public transportation, while in the performance of duty;

(3)  attempts to cause or intentionally or knowingly causes bodily injury to any of the officers, agents, employees or other persons enumerated in subsection (c), in the performance of duty;

(4)  attempts to cause or intentionally or knowingly causes bodily injury to another with a deadly weapon;

(5)  attempts to cause or intentionally or knowingly causes bodily injury to a teaching staff member, school board member or other employee, including a student employee, of any elementary or secondary publicly-funded educational institution, any elementary or secondary private school licensed by the Department of Education or any elementary or secondary parochial school while acting in the scope of his or her employment or because of his or her employment relationship to the school;

(6)  attempts by physical menace to put any of the officers, agents, employees or other persons enumerated in subsection (c), while in the performance of duty, in fear of imminent serious bodily injury;

(7)  uses tear or noxious gas as defined in section 2708(b) (relating to use of tear or noxious gas in labor disputes) or uses an electric or electronic incapacitation device against any officer, employee or other person enumerated in subsection (c) while acting in the scope of his employment;

(8)  attempts to cause or intentionally, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury to a child less than six years of age, by a person 18 years of age or older; or

(9)  attempts to cause or intentionally, knowingly or recklessly causes serious bodily injury to a child less than 13 years of age, by a person 18 years of age or older.

(b)  Grading.--Aggravated assault under subsection (a)(1), (2) and (9) is a felony of the first degree. Aggravated assault under subsection (a)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8) is a felony of the second degree.

(c)  Officers, employees, etc., enumerated.--The officers, agents, employees and other persons referred to in subsection (a) shall be as follows:

(1)  Police officer.

(2)  Firefighter.

(3)  County adult probation or parole officer.

(4)  County juvenile probation or parole officer.

(5)  An agent of the Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole.

(6)  Sheriff.

(7)  Deputy sheriff.

(8)  Liquor control enforcement agent.

(9)  Officer or employee of a correctional institution, county jail or prison, juvenile detention center or any other facility to which the person has been ordered by the court pursuant to a petition alleging delinquency under 42 Pa.C.S. Ch. 63 (relating to juvenile matters).

(10)  Judge of any court in the unified judicial system.

(11)  The Attorney General.

(12)  A deputy attorney general.

(13)  A district attorney.

(14)  An assistant district attorney.

(15)  A public defender.

(16)  An assistant public defender.

(17)  A Federal law enforcement official.

(18)  A State law enforcement official.

(19)  A local law enforcement official.

(20)  Any person employed to assist or who assists any Federal, State or local law enforcement official.

(21)  Emergency medical services personnel.

(22)  Parking enforcement officer.

(23)  A magisterial district judge.

(24)  A constable.

(25)  A deputy constable.

(26)  A psychiatric aide.

(27)  A teaching staff member, a school board member or other employee, including a student employee, of any elementary or secondary publicly funded educational institution, any elementary or secondary private school licensed by the Department of Education or any elementary or secondary parochial school while acting in the scope of his or her employment or because of his or her employment relationship to the school.

(28)  Governor.

(29)  Lieutenant Governor.

(30)  Auditor General.

(31)  State Treasurer.

(32)  Member of the General Assembly.

(33)  An employee of the Department of Environmental Protection.

(34)  An individual engaged in the private detective business as defined in section 2(a) and (b) of the act of August 21, 1953 (P.L.1273, No.361), known as The Private Detective Act of 1953.

(35)  An employee or agent of a county children and youth social service agency or of the legal representative of such agency.

(36)  A public utility employee or an employee of an electric cooperative.

(37)  A wildlife conservation officer or deputy wildlife conservation officer of the Pennsylvania Game Commission.

(38)  A waterways conservation officer or deputy waterways conservation officer of the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission.

(d)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Electric or electronic incapacitation device."  A portable device which is designed or intended by the manufacturer to be used, offensively or defensively, to temporarily immobilize or incapacitate persons by means of electric pulse or current, including devices operated by means of carbon dioxide propellant. The term does not include cattle prods, electric fences or other electric devices when used in agricultural, animal husbandry or food production activities.

"Emergency medical services personnel."  The term includes, but is not limited to, doctors, residents, interns, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nurse aides, ambulance attendants and operators, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and members of a hospital security force while working within the scope of their employment.

18c2702v

(Oct. 1, 1980, P.L.689, No.139, eff. 60 days; Oct. 16, 1980, P.L.978, No.167, eff. 60 days; Dec. 11, 1986, P.L.1517, No.164, eff. 60 days; Feb. 2, 1990, P.L.6, No.4, eff. 60 days; July 6, 1995, P.L.238, No.27, eff. 60 days; Feb. 23, 1996, P.L.17, No.7, eff. 60 days; July 2, 1996, P.L.478, No.75, eff. 60 days; Dec. 21, 1998, P.L.1245, No.159, eff. 60 days; Nov. 6, 2002, P.L.1096, No.132, eff. 60 days; Nov. 29, 2004, P.L.1349, No.173, eff. 60 days; Nov. 30, 2004, P.L.1618, No.207, eff. 60 days; Oct. 24, 2012, P.L.1205, No.150, eff. 60 days; Dec. 18, 2013, P.L.1198, No.118, eff. Jan. 1, 2014)

 

2013 Amendment.  Act 118 amended subsecs. (a)(6) and (7) and (b) and added subsec. (a)(8) and (9).

2012 Amendment.  Act 150 amended subsec. (c).

2004 Amendments.  See sections 28 and 29 of Act 207 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to applicability and construction of law.

Cross References.  Section 2702 is referred to in sections 2701, 2703, 2709.1, 2711, 5702, 5708, 6105 of this title; sections 2511, 5329, 6344, 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 904 of Title 30 (Fish); section 905.1 of Title 34 (Game); sections 5551, 5552, 6302, 6307, 6308, 6336, 6355, 9714, 9717, 9718, 9719, 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 702 of Title 54 (Names); section 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2702.1s

§ 2702.1.  Assault of law enforcement officer.

(a)  Assault of a law enforcement officer in the first degree.--A person commits a felony of the first degree who attempts to cause or intentionally or knowingly causes bodily injury to a law enforcement officer, while in the performance of duty and with knowledge that the victim is a law enforcement officer, by discharging a firearm.

(b)  Penalties.--Notwithstanding section 1103(1) (relating to sentence of imprisonment for felony), a person convicted under subsection (a) shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment fixed by the court at not more than 40 years.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Law enforcement officer."  The term shall have the same meaning as the term "peace officer" is given under section 501 (relating to definitions).

"Firearm."  As defined under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9712(e) (relating to sentences for offenses committed with firearms).

18c2702.1v

(Oct. 17, 2008, P.L.1628, No.131, eff. 60 days)

 

2008 Amendment.  Act 131 added section 2702.1.

Cross References.  Section 2702.1 is referred to in section 905.1 of Title 34 (Game); sections 9714, 9719.1 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2703s

§ 2703.  Assault by prisoner.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person who is confined in or committed to any local or county detention facility, jail or prison or any State penal or correctional institution or other State penal or correctional facility located in this Commonwealth is guilty of a felony of the second degree if he, while so confined or committed or while undergoing transportation to or from such an institution or facility in or to which he was confined or committed intentionally or knowingly, commits an assault upon another with a deadly weapon or instrument, or by any means or force likely to produce serious bodily injury. A person is guilty of this offense if he intentionally or knowingly causes another to come into contact with blood, seminal fluid, saliva, urine or feces by throwing, tossing, spitting or expelling such fluid or material when, at the time of the offense, the person knew, had reason to know, should have known or believed such fluid or material to have been obtained from an individual, including the person charged under this section, infected by a communicable disease, including, but not limited to, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B.

(b)  Consecutive sentences.--The court shall order that any sentence imposed for a violation of subsection (a), or any sentence imposed for a violation of section 2702(a) (relating to aggravated assault) where the victim is a detention facility or correctional facility employee, be served consecutively with the person's current sentence.

18c2703v

(Dec. 10, 1974, P.L.810, No.268; Feb. 18, 1998, P.L.102, No.19, eff. imd.)

 

Cross References.  Section 2703 is referred to in section 6105 of this title; section 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2703.1s

§ 2703.1.  Aggravated harassment by prisoner.

A person who is confined in or committed to any local or county detention facility, jail or prison or any State penal or correctional institution or other State penal or correctional facility located in this Commonwealth commits a felony of the third degree if he, while so confined or committed or while undergoing transportation to or from such an institution or facility in or to which he was confined or committed, intentionally or knowingly causes or attempts to cause another to come into contact with blood, seminal fluid, saliva, urine or feces by throwing, tossing, spitting or expelling such fluid or material.

18c2703.1v

(Feb. 18, 1998, P.L.102, No.19, eff. imd.)

 

1998 Amendment.  Act 19 added section 2703.1.

18c2704s

§ 2704.  Assault by life prisoner.

Every person who has been sentenced to death or life imprisonment in any penal institution located in this Commonwealth, and whose sentence has not been commuted, who commits an aggravated assault with a deadly weapon or instrument upon another, or by any means of force likely to produce serious bodily injury, is guilty of a crime, the penalty for which shall be the same as the penalty for murder of the second degree. A person is guilty of this offense if he intentionally or knowingly causes another to come into contact with blood, seminal fluid, saliva, urine or feces by throwing, tossing, spitting or expelling such fluid or material when, at the time of the offense, the person knew, had reason to know, should have known or believed such fluid or material to have been obtained from an individual, including the person charged under this section, infected by a communicable disease, including, but not limited to, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B.

18c2704v

(Mar. 26, 1974, P.L.213, No.46, eff. imd.; Feb. 18, 1998, P.L.102, No.19, eff. imd.)

 

Cross References.  Section 2704 is referred to in section 6105 of this title; section 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2705s

§ 2705.  Recklessly endangering another person.

A person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree if he recklessly engages in conduct which places or may place another person in danger of death or serious bodily injury.

18c2705v

 

Cross References.  Section 2705 is referred to in sections 2709.1, 2711 of this title; section 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations).

18c2706s

§ 2706.  Terroristic threats.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits the crime of terroristic threats if the person communicates, either directly or indirectly, a threat to:

(1)  commit any crime of violence with intent to terrorize another;

(2)  cause evacuation of a building, place of assembly or facility of public transportation; or

(3)  otherwise cause serious public inconvenience, or cause terror or serious public inconvenience with reckless disregard of the risk of causing such terror or inconvenience.

(b)  Restitution.--A person convicted of violating this section shall, in addition to any other sentence imposed or restitution ordered under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9721(c) (relating to sentencing generally), be sentenced to pay restitution in an amount equal to the cost of the evacuation, including, but not limited to, fire and police response; emergency medical service or emergency preparedness response; and transportation of an individual from the building, place of assembly or facility.

(c)  Preservation of private remedies.--No judgment or order of restitution shall debar a person, by appropriate action, to recover from the offender as otherwise provided by law, provided that any civil award shall be reduced by the amount paid under the criminal judgment.

(d)  Grading.--An offense under subsection (a) constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree unless the threat causes the occupants of the building, place of assembly or facility of public transportation to be diverted from their normal or customary operations, in which case the offense constitutes a felony of the third degree.

(e)  Definition.--As used in this section, the term "communicates" means conveys in person or by written or electronic means, including telephone, electronic mail, Internet, facsimile, telex and similar transmissions.

18c2706v

(June 18, 1998, P.L.534, No.76, eff. 60 days; Dec. 15, 1999, P.L.915, No.59, eff. 60 days; June 28, 2002, P.L.481, No.82, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 82 amended subsecs. (b), (c) and (d).

1999 Amendment.  Act 59 amended subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Cross References.  Section 2706 is referred to in sections 911, 2711, 5708 of this title; section 5329 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 5552 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 1532 of Title 75 (Vehicles).

18c2707s

§ 2707.  Propulsion of missiles into an occupied vehicle or onto a roadway.

(a)  Occupied vehicles.--Whoever intentionally throws, shoots or propels a rock, stone, brick, or piece of iron, steel or other like metal, or any deadly or dangerous missile, or fire bomb, into a vehicle or instrumentality of public transportation that is occupied by one or more persons commits a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(b)  Roadways.--Whoever intentionally throws, shoots, drops or causes to be propelled any solid object, from an overpass or any other location adjacent to or on a roadway, onto or toward said roadway shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree.

18c2707v

(July 16, 1975, P.L.62, No.37; Dec. 21, 1998, P.L.1103, No.149, eff. 60 days)

 

1998 Amendment.  Act 149 amended subsec. (b).

18c2707.1s

§ 2707.1.  Discharge of a firearm into an occupied structure.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits an offense if he knowingly, intentionally or recklessly discharges a firearm from any location into an occupied structure.

(b)  Grading.--An offense under this section shall be a felony of the third degree.

(c)  Defense.--It is a defense to prosecution under this section that:

(1)  the person discharging the firearm was a law enforcement officer engaged in the performance of his official law enforcement duties; or

(2)  the person discharging the firearm was engaged in a hunting activity; and

(i)  the discharge of the firearm took place from a location where the hunting activity is lawful; and

(ii)  the passage of the projectile from the firearm into the occupied structure was not intentional, knowing or reckless.

(d)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Firearm."  Any weapon which is designed to or may readily be converted to expel any projectile by the action of an explosion or the frame or receiver of any such weapon.

"Occupied structure."  Any structure, vehicle or place adapted for overnight accommodation of persons or for carrying on business therein, whether or not a person is actually present.

18c2707.1v

(Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.831, No.116, eff. 60 days)

 

2000 Amendment.  Act 116 added section 2707.1.

18c2707.2s

§ 2707.2.  Paintball guns and paintball markers.

(a)  Unlawful carrying in vehicle.--

(1)  (Deleted by amendment).

(1.1)  Except as set forth in paragraph (2), an individual may not carry a paintball gun or a paintball marker in a vehicle on a highway unless all of the following apply:

(i)  The paintball gun or paintball marker is empty of encapsulated gelatin paintballs.

(ii)  The propellant source on the paintball gun or paintball marker is disconnected, disabled or turned off.

(iii)  The paintballs are stored in a separate and closed container.

(iv)  The paintball gun or paintball marker is:

(A)  in a secure wrapper;

(B)  has a barrel-blocking device installed; or

(C)  is not readily or directly accessible from the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

(2)  Paragraph (1.1) does not apply to a commercial paintball field, range or course where passengers are being transported by the commercial field, range or course operator to and from designated player areas.

(a.1)  Unlawful discharge of paintball gun or paintball marker.--An individual may not discharge or fire a paintball gun or paintball marker at a person who is not participating in paintball games or paintball-related recreational activities.

(b)  Penalty.--A person who violates this section commits a summary offense.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Barrel-blocking device."  A device which captures or prevents the discharge of an encapsulated gelatin paintball from a paintball gun or paintball marker and meets the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) F2271-03 (Standard Specification for Paintball Marker Barrel Blocking Devices) or its successor.

"Paintball gun."  A device designed and manufactured to propel, by gas or air, an encapsulated gelatin paintball.

"Paintball marker."  A device designed and manufactured to propel, by gas or air, an encapsulated gelatin paintball.

18c2707.2v

(Nov. 21, 2001, P.L.846, No.87, eff. 60 days; Dec. 22, 2005, P.L.449, No.85, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2707.2 is referred to in section 6304 of this title.

18c2708s

§ 2708.  Use of tear or noxious gas in labor disputes.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person other than a duly constituted officer of the law is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree if he uses or directs the use of tear or noxious gas against any person involved in a labor dispute.

(b)  Definition.--As used in this section, the term "tear or noxious gas" means any liquid or gaseous substance that, when dispersed in the atmosphere, blinds the eyes with tears or irritates or injures other organs and tissues of the human body or causes nausea, including, but not limited to, red pepper spray.

18c2708v

(Nov. 6, 2002, P.L.1096, No.132, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2708 is referred to in section 2702 of this title.

18c2709s

§ 2709.  Harassment.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits the crime of harassment when, with intent to harass, annoy or alarm another, the person:

(1)  strikes, shoves, kicks or otherwise subjects the other person to physical contact, or attempts or threatens to do the same;

(2)  follows the other person in or about a public place or places;

(3)  engages in a course of conduct or repeatedly commits acts which serve no legitimate purpose;

(4)  communicates to or about such other person any lewd, lascivious, threatening or obscene words, language, drawings or caricatures;

(5)  communicates repeatedly in an anonymous manner;

(6)  communicates repeatedly at extremely inconvenient hours; or

(7)  communicates repeatedly in a manner other than specified in paragraphs (4), (5) and (6).

(b)  Stalking.--(Deleted by amendment).

(b.1)  Venue.--

(1)  An offense committed under this section may be deemed to have been committed at either the place at which the communication or communications were made or at the place where the communication or communications were received.

(2)  Acts indicating a course of conduct which occur in more than one jurisdiction may be used by any other jurisdiction in which an act occurred as evidence of a continuing pattern of conduct or a course of conduct.

(c)  Grading.--

(1)  Except as provided under paragraph (3), an offense under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (3) shall constitute a summary offense.

(2)  An offense under subsection (a)(4), (5), (6) or (7) shall constitute a misdemeanor of the third degree.

(3)  The grading of an offense under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (3) shall be enhanced one degree if the person has previously violated an order issued under 23 Pa.C.S. § 6108 (relating to relief) involving the same victim, family or household member.

(d)  False reports.--A person who knowingly gives false information to any law enforcement officer with the intent to implicate another under this section commits an offense under section 4906 (relating to false reports to law enforcement authorities).

(e)  Application of section.--This section shall not apply to conduct by a party to a labor dispute as defined in the act of June 2, 1937 (P.L.1198, No.308), known as the Labor Anti-Injunction Act, or to any constitutionally protected activity.

(e.1)  Course of conduct.--(Deleted by amendment).

(f)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Communicates."  Conveys a message without intent of legitimate communication or address by oral, nonverbal, written or electronic means, including telephone, electronic mail, Internet, facsimile, telex, wireless communication or similar transmission.

"Course of conduct."  A pattern of actions composed of more than one act over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of conduct. Acts indicating a course of conduct which occur in more than one jurisdiction may be used by any other jurisdiction in which an act occurred as evidence of a continuing pattern of conduct or a course of conduct.

"Emotional distress."  (Deleted by amendment).

"Family or household member."  Spouses or persons who have been spouses, persons living as spouses or who lived as spouses, parents and children, other persons related by consanguinity or affinity, current or former sexual or intimate partners or persons who share biological parenthood.

18c2709v

(June 23, 1993, P.L.124, No.28, eff. imd.; Oct. 2, 1997, P.L.379, No.44, eff. 60 days; Dec. 15, 1999, P.L.915, No.59, eff. 60 days; Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1759, No.218, eff. 60 days; Nov. 27, 2013, P.L.1061, No.91, eff. 60 days)

 

2013 Amendment.  Act 91 amended subsec. (c) and added the def. of "family or household member" in subsec. (f).

2002 Amendment.  See sections 9 and 10 of Act 218 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to references to section 2709 and references to section 5504.

Cross References.  Section 2709 is referred to in sections 4954, 4955, 5708 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports); sections 6108, 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 3573, 62A03 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2709.1s

§ 2709.1.  Stalking.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits the crime of stalking when the person either:

(1)  engages in a course of conduct or repeatedly commits acts toward another person, including following the person without proper authority, under circumstances which demonstrate either an intent to place such other person in reasonable fear of bodily injury or to cause substantial emotional distress to such other person; or

(2)  engages in a course of conduct or repeatedly communicates to another person under circumstances which demonstrate or communicate either an intent to place such other person in reasonable fear of bodily injury or to cause substantial emotional distress to such other person.

(b)  Venue.--

(1)  An offense committed under this section may be deemed to have been committed at either the place at which the communication or communications were made or at the place where the communication or communications were received.

(2)  Acts indicating a course of conduct which occur in more than one jurisdiction may be used by any other jurisdiction in which an act occurred as evidence of a continuing pattern of conduct or a course of conduct.

(c)  Grading.--

(1)  Except as otherwise provided for in paragraph (2), a first offense under this section shall constitute a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(2)  A second or subsequent offense under this section or a first offense under subsection (a) if the person has been previously convicted of a crime of violence involving the same victim, family or household member, including, but not limited to, a violation of section 2701 (relating to simple assault), 2702 (relating to aggravated assault), 2705 (relating to recklessly endangering another person), 2901 (relating to kidnapping), 3121 (relating to rape) or 3123 (relating to involuntary deviate sexual intercourse), an order issued under section 4954 (relating to protective orders) or an order issued under 23 Pa.C.S. § 6108 (relating to relief) shall constitute a felony of the third degree.

(d)  False reports.--A person who knowingly gives false information to any law enforcement officer with the intent to implicate another under this section commits an offense under section 4906 (relating to false reports to law enforcement authorities).

(e)  Application of section.--This section shall not apply to conduct by a party to a labor dispute as defined in the act of June 2, 1937 (P.L.1198, No.308), known as the Labor Anti-Injunction Act, or to any constitutionally protected activity.

(f)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Communicates."  To convey a message without intent of legitimate communication or address by oral, nonverbal, written or electronic means, including telephone, electronic mail, Internet, facsimile, telex, wireless communication or similar transmission.

"Course of conduct."  A pattern of actions composed of more than one act over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of conduct. The term includes lewd, lascivious, threatening or obscene words, language, drawings, caricatures or actions, either in person or anonymously. Acts indicating a course of conduct which occur in more than one jurisdiction may be used by any other jurisdiction in which an act occurred as evidence of a continuing pattern of conduct or a course of conduct.

"Emotional distress."  A temporary or permanent state of mental anguish.

"Family or household member."  Spouses or persons who have been spouses, persons living as spouses or who lived as spouses, parents and children, other persons related by consanguinity or affinity, current or former sexual or intimate partners or persons who share biological parenthood.

18c2709.1v

(Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1759, No.218, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 218 added section 2709.1. See sections 9 and 10 of Act 218 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to references to section 2709 and references to section 5504.

Cross References.  Section 2709.1 is referred to in sections 2711, 4954, 4955, 5708, 6105 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports); sections 5329, 6108, 6344, 6702, 6704, 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 62A03 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2710s

§ 2710.  Ethnic intimidation.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits the offense of ethnic intimidation if, with malicious intention toward the race, color, religion or national origin of another individual or group of individuals, he commits an offense under any other provision of this article or under Chapter 33 (relating to arson, criminal mischief and other property destruction) exclusive of section 3307 (relating to institutional vandalism) or under section 3503 (relating to criminal trespass) with respect to such individual or his or her property or with respect to one or more members of such group or to their property.

(b)  Grading.--An offense under this section shall be classified as a misdemeanor of the third degree if the other offense is classified as a summary offense. Otherwise, an offense under this section shall be classified one degree higher in the classification specified in section 106 (relating to classes of offenses) than the classification of the other offense.

(c)  Definition.--As used in this section "malicious intention" means the intention to commit any act, the commission of which is a necessary element of any offense referred to in subsection (a) motivated by hatred toward the race, color, religion or national origin of another individual or group of individuals.

18c2710v

(June 18, 1982, P.L.537, No.154, eff. imd.; Dec. 3, 2002, P.L.1176, No.143, eff. imd.; Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1759, No.218, eff. 60 days)

 

2008 Effectuation of Declaration of Unconstitutionality.  The Legislative Reference Bureau effectuated the 2007 unconstitutionality.

2007 Unconstitutionality.  Act 143 of 2002 was declared unconstitutional. Marcavage v. Rendell, 936 A.2d 188 (Pa. Commonwealth 2007).

2002 Amendments.  Act 143 amended the entire section and Act 218 amended subsec. (a). Act 218 overlooked the amendment by Act 143, but the amendments do not conflict in substance and both have been given effect in setting forth the text of subsec. (a).

1982 Amendment.  See section 2 of Act 154 of 1982 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to right of action for injunction, damages or other relief.

Effective Date.  After December 2, 2002, and before February 7, 2003, section 2710 will reflect only the amendment by Act 143, as follows:

§ 2710.  Ethnic intimidation.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits the offense of ethnic intimidation if, with malicious intention toward the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ancestry, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity of another individual or group of individuals, he commits an offense under any other provision of this article or under Chapter 33 (relating to arson, criminal mischief and other property destruction) exclusive of section 3307 (relating to institutional vandalism) or under section 3503 (relating to criminal trespass) or under section 5504 (relating to harassment by communication or address) with respect to such individual or his or her property or with respect to one or more members of such group or to their property.

(b)  Grading.--An offense under this section shall be classified as a misdemeanor of the third degree if the other offense is classified as a summary offense. Otherwise, an offense under this section shall be classified one degree higher in the classification specified in section 106 (relating to classes of offenses) than the classification of the other offense.

(c)  Definition.--As used in this section "malicious intention" means the intention to commit any act, the commission of which is a necessary element of any offense referred to in subsection (a) motivated by hatred toward the actual or perceived race, color, religion or national origin, ancestry, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, gender or gender identity of another individual or group of individuals.

Cross References.  Section 2710 is referred to in section 8309 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2711s

§ 2711.  Probable cause arrests in domestic violence cases.

(a)  General rule.--A police officer shall have the same right of arrest without a warrant as in a felony whenever he has probable cause to believe the defendant has violated section 2504 (relating to involuntary manslaughter), 2701 (relating to simple assault), 2702(a)(3), (4) and (5) (relating to aggravated assault), 2705 (relating to recklessly endangering another person), 2706 (relating to terroristic threats) or 2709.1 (relating to stalking) against a family or household member although the offense did not take place in the presence of the police officer. A police officer may not arrest a person pursuant to this section without first observing recent physical injury to the victim or other corroborative evidence. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "family or household member" has the meaning given that term in 23 Pa.C.S. § 6102 (relating to definitions).

(b)  Seizure of weapons.--The arresting police officer shall seize all weapons used by the defendant in the commission of the alleged offense.

(c)  Bail.--

(1)  A defendant arrested pursuant to this section shall be afforded a preliminary arraignment by the proper issuing authority without unnecessary delay. In no case shall the arresting officer release the defendant from custody rather than taking the defendant before the issuing authority.

(2)  In determining whether to admit the defendant to bail, the issuing authority shall consider whether the defendant poses a threat of danger to the victim. If the issuing authority makes such a determination, it shall require as a condition of bail that the defendant shall refrain from entering the residence or household of the victim and the victim's place of employment and shall refrain from committing any further criminal conduct against the victim and shall so notify the defendant thereof at the time the defendant is admitted to bail. Such condition shall expire at the time of the preliminary hearing or upon the entry or the denial of the protection of abuse order by the court, whichever occurs first. A violation of this condition may be punishable by the revocation of any form of pretrial release or the forfeiture of bail and the issuance of a bench warrant for the defendant's arrest or remanding him to custody or a modification of the terms of the bail. The defendant shall be provided a hearing on this matter.

(d)  Notice of rights.--Upon responding to a domestic violence case, the police officer shall, orally or in writing, notify the victim of the availability of a shelter, including its telephone number, or other services in the community. Said notice shall include the following statement: "If you are the victim of domestic violence, you have the right to go to court and file a petition requesting an order for protection from domestic abuse pursuant to 23 Pa.C.S. Ch. 61 (relating to protection from abuse) which could include the following:

(1)  An order restraining the abuser from further acts of abuse.

(2)  An order directing the abuser to leave your household.

(3)  An order preventing the abuser from entering your residence, school, business or place of employment.

(4)  An order awarding you or the other parent temporary custody of or temporary visitation with your child or children.

(5)  An order directing the abuser to pay support to you and the minor children if the abuser has a legal obligation to do so."

18c2711v

(Feb. 15, 1986, P.L.27, No.10, eff. 60 days; Dec. 19, 1990, P.L.1240, No.206, eff. 90 days; Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.728, No.101, eff. 60 days; Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1759, No.218, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 218 amended subsec. (a).

1990 Amendment.  Act 206 amended subsec. (d).

18c2712s

§ 2712.  Assault on sports official.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person who violates section 2701 (relating to simple assault), where the victim is a sports official who was assaulted during a sports event or was assaulted as a result of his or her official acts as a sports official, is guilty of assault on a sports official.

(b)  Grading.--Assault on a sports official is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Sports event."  Any interscholastic athletic activity in a junior high school, high school, college or university in this Commonwealth or any other organized athletic activity in this Commonwealth, including a professional or semiprofessional event.

"Sports official."  A person at a sports event who enforces the rules of the event, such as an umpire or referee, or a person who supervises the participants, such as a coach. The term includes a trainer, team attendant, game manager, athletic director, assistant athletic director, president, dean, headmaster, principal and assistant principal of a school, college or university.

18c2712v

(Feb. 14, 1990, P.L.54, No.7, eff. imd.)

 

1990 Amendment.  Act 7 added section 2712.

18c2713s

§ 2713.  Neglect of care-dependent person.

(a)  Offense defined.--A caretaker is guilty of neglect of a care-dependent person if he:

(1)  Intentionally, knowingly or recklessly causes bodily injury or serious bodily injury by failing to provide treatment, care, goods or services necessary to preserve the health, safety or welfare of a care-dependent person for whom he is responsible to provide care.

(2)  Intentionally or knowingly uses a physical restraint or chemical restraint or medication on a care-dependent person, or isolates a care-dependent person contrary to law or regulation, such that bodily injury or serious bodily injury results.

(b)  Penalty.--

(1)  A violation of subsection (a)(1) constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree if the victim suffers bodily injury.

(2)  A violation of subsection (a)(1) constitutes a felony of the first degree if the victim suffers serious bodily injury.

(3)  A violation of subsection (a)(2) constitutes a misdemeanor of the first degree if the victim suffers bodily injury.

(4)  A violation of subsection (a)(2) constitutes a felony of the first degree if the victim suffers serious bodily injury.

(c)  Report during investigation.--When in the course of conducting any regulatory or investigative responsibility, the Department of Aging, the Department of Health or the Department of Public Welfare has a reasonable cause to believe that a care-dependent person or care-dependent persons residing in a facility have suffered bodily injury or been unlawfully restrained in violation of subsection (a)(1) or (2), a report shall be made immediately to the local law enforcement agency or to the Office of Attorney General.

(d)  Enforcement.--

(1)  The district attorneys of the several counties shall have authority to investigate and to institute criminal proceedings for any violations of this section.

(2)  In addition to the authority conferred upon the Attorney General under the act of October 15, 1980 (P.L.950, No.164), known as the Commonwealth Attorneys Act, the Attorney General shall have the authority to investigate and institute criminal proceedings for any violation of this section. A person charged with a violation of this section by the Attorney General shall not have standing to challenge the authority of the Attorney General to investigate or prosecute the case, and, if any such challenge is made, the challenge shall be dismissed and no relief shall be available in the courts of this Commonwealth to the person making the challenge.

(e)  Treatment in conformance with care-dependent person's right to accept or refuse services.--A caretaker or any other individual or facility may offer an affirmative defense to charges filed pursuant to this section if the caretaker, individual or facility can demonstrate through a preponderance of the evidence that the alleged violations result directly from:

(1)  the caretaker's, individual's or facility's lawful compliance with a care-dependent person's living will as provided in 20 Pa.C.S. Ch. 54 (relating to health care);

(2)  the caretaker's, individual's or facility's lawful compliance with the care-dependent person's written, signed and witnessed instructions, executed when the care-dependent person is competent as to the treatment he wishes to receive;

(3)  the caretaker's, individual's or facility's lawful compliance with the direction of the care-dependent person's:

(i)  agent acting pursuant to a lawful durable power of attorney under 20 Pa.C.S. Ch. 56 (relating to powers of attorney), within the scope of that power; or

(ii)  health care agent acting pursuant to a health care power of attorney under 20 Pa.C.S. Ch. 54 Subch. C (relating to health care agents and representatives), within the scope of that power;

(4)  the caretaker's, individual's or facility's lawful compliance with a "Do Not Resuscitate" order written and signed by the care-dependent person's attending physician; or

(5)  the caretaker's, individual's or facility's lawful compliance with the direction of the care-dependent person's health care representative under 20 Pa.C.S. § 5461 (relating to decisions by health care representative), provided the care-dependent person has an end-stage medical condition or is permanently unconscious as these terms are defined in 20 Pa.C.S. § 5422 (relating to definitions) as determined and documented in the person's medical record by the person's attending physician.

(f)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Care-dependent person."  Any adult who, due to physical or cognitive disability or impairment, requires assistance to meet his needs for food, shelter, clothing, personal care or health care.

"Caretaker."  Any person who:

(1)  is an owner, operator, manager or employee of a nursing home, personal care home, domiciliary care home, community residential facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, adult daily living center, home health agency or home health service provider whether licensed or unlicensed;

(2)  provides care to a care-dependent person in the setting described in paragraph (1); or

(3)  has an obligation to care for a care-dependent person for monetary consideration in the settings described in paragraph (1) or in the care-dependent person's home.

"Person."  A natural person, corporation, partnership, unincorporated association or other business entity.

18c2713v

(July 6, 1995, P.L.242, No.28, eff. 60 days; June 25, 1997, P.L.284, No.26, eff. 60 days; June 18, 1998, P.L.503, No.70, eff. 60 days; Nov. 29, 2006, P.L.1484, No.169, eff. 60 days)

 

2006 Amendment.  Act 169 amended subsec. (e).

1998 Amendment.  Act 70 amended subsec. (d)(2).

1997 Amendment.  Act 26 amended subsec. (f).

1995 Amendment.  Act 28 added section 2713.

Cross References.  Section 2713 is referred to in section 4120 of this title; section 5461 of Title 20 (Decedents, Estates and Fiduciaries); section 5552 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2714s

§ 2714.  Unauthorized administration of intoxicant.

A person commits a felony of the third degree when, with the intent to commit an offense under section 3121(a)(4) (relating to rape), 3123(a)(4) (relating to involuntary deviate sexual intercourse), 3125(5) (relating to aggravated indecent assault) or 3126(a)(5) (relating to indecent assault), he or she substantially impairs the complainant's power to appraise or control his or her conduct by administering, without the knowledge of the complainant, drugs or other intoxicants.

18c2714v

(Dec. 19, 1997, P.L.621, No.65, eff. 60 days)

 

1997 Amendment.  Act 65 added section 2714.

18c2715s

§ 2715.  Threat to use weapons of mass destruction.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person who intentionally:

(1)  (Deleted by amendment).

(2)  (Deleted by amendment).

(3)  reports without factual basis of knowledge the existence or potential existence of a weapon of mass destruction; or

(4)  threatens by any means the placement or setting of a weapon of mass destruction;

commits an offense under this section. A separate offense shall occur for each report or threat to place or set a weapon of mass destruction.

(b)  Penalty.--An offense under this section shall be graded as follows:

(1)  Except as set forth in paragraph (2), a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(2)  If the report or threat causes the occupants of a building, place of assembly or facility of public transportation to be diverted from their normal or customary operations, a felony of the third degree.

(3)  A felony of the second degree if the offense occurs during a declared state of emergency and the report or threat causes disruption to the operations of any person, business entity or governmental agency where the weapon of mass destruction is reported to exist or threatened to be placed or set.

(c)  Emergency response costs.--A person convicted of violating this section shall, in addition to any other sentence imposed or restitution ordered under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9721(c) (relating to sentencing generally), be sentenced to pay restitution in an amount equal to the cost of the evacuation, including, but not limited to, fire and police response; emergency medical service or emergency preparedness response; and transportation of an individual from the building, place of assembly or facility.

(c.1)  Preservation of private remedies.--No judgment or order of restitution shall debar a person, by appropriate action, to recover from the offender as otherwise provided by law, provided that any civil award shall be reduced by the amount paid under the criminal judgment.

(c.2)  Application of section.--This section shall not apply to lawful conduct by a party to a labor dispute as defined in the act of June 2, 1937 (P.L.1198, No.308), known as the Labor Anti-Injunction Act, or to any constitutionally protected activity.

(d)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Biological agent."  A natural or genetically engineered pathogen, toxin, virus, bacteria, prion, fungus or microorganism which causes infections, disease or bodily harm.

"Bomb."  An explosive device used for unlawful purposes.

"Chemical agent."  Any of the following:

(1)  A nerve agent, including tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GF and VX.

(2)  A choking agent, including phosgene (CG) and diphosgene (DP).

(3)  A blood agent, including hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK) and arsine (SA).

(4)  A blister agent. This paragraph includes:

(i)  Mustard (H).

(ii)  Sulfur mustard (HD).

(iii)  HN-1.

(iv)  HN-2.

(v)  Sulfur mustard (HN-3).

(vi)  An arsenical, such as lewisite (L).

(vii)  An urticant, such as CX.

(viii)  An incapacitating agent, such as B2.

(5)  Any other chemical element or compound which causes death or bodily harm.

"Nuclear agent."  A radioactive material.

"Weapon of mass destruction."  A bomb, biological agent, chemical agent or nuclear agent.

18c2715v

(Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.728, No.101, eff. 60 days; June 28, 2002, P.L.481, No.82, eff. 60 days)

18c2716s

§ 2716.  Weapons of mass destruction.

(a)  Unlawful possession or manufacture.--A person commits an offense if the person, without lawful authority to do so, intentionally, knowingly or recklessly possesses or manufactures a weapon of mass destruction.

(b)  Use.--A person commits an offense if the person, without lawful authority to do so, intentionally, knowingly or recklessly sells, purchases, transports or causes another to transport, delivers or causes to be delivered or uses a weapon of mass destruction and if such action causes any of the following:

(1)  Illness or injury to another individual.

(2)  Damage to or disruption of a water or food supply or public natural resources, including waterways, State forests and parks, surface water, groundwater and wildlife.

(3)  Evacuation of a building, place of assembly or facility of public transportation.

(c)  Grading.--

(1)  A first offense under subsection (a) constitutes a felony of the second degree. A subsequent offense under subsection (a) constitutes a felony of the first degree.

(2)  An offense under subsection (b)(1) constitutes a felony of the first degree. If the offense results in the death of an individual, the defendant shall be sentenced to life imprisonment.

(3)  An offense under subsection (b)(2) or (3) constitutes a felony of the first degree.

(d)  Restitution.--A person convicted of violating this section shall, in addition to any other sentence imposed or restitution ordered under 42 Pa.C.S. § 9721(c) (relating to sentencing generally), be sentenced to pay restitution in an amount equal to the cost of the evacuation, including, but not limited to, fire and police response; emergency medical service or emergency preparedness response; and transportation of an individual from the building, place of assembly or facility.

(e)  Preservation of private remedies.--No judgment or order of restitution shall debar a person, by appropriate action, to recover from the offender as otherwise provided by law, provided that any civil award shall be reduced by the amount paid under the criminal judgment.

(f)  Possession.--For purposes of this section, an individual shall not be deemed to be in possession of an agent if the individual is naturally exposed to or innocently infected or contaminated with the agent.

(g)  Enforcement.--

(1)  In addition to the authority conferred upon the Attorney General under sections 205 and 206 of the act of October 15, 1980 (P.L.950, No.164), known as the Commonwealth Attorneys Act, the Attorney General has the authority to investigate and to institute criminal proceedings for a violation of this section committed:

(i)  anywhere in this Commonwealth;

(ii)  in different counties; or

(iii)  in this Commonwealth and another jurisdiction.

(2)  Each district attorney has the authority to investigate and to institute criminal proceedings for a violation of this section.

(h)  Jurisdiction.--No person charged with a violation of this section shall have standing to challenge the authority of the Attorney General under subsection (g)(1). If a challenge is made in violation of this subsection, the challenge shall be dismissed, and no relief shall be available in the courts of this Commonwealth to the person making the challenge.

(i)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Biological agent."  A natural or genetically engineered pathogen, toxin, virus, bacteria, prion, fungus or microorganism which causes infections, disease or bodily harm.

"Bomb."  An explosive device used for unlawful purposes.

"Chemical agent."  Any of the following:

(1)  A nerve agent, including tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GF and VX.

(2)  A choking agent, including phosgene (CG) and diphosgene (DP).

(3)  A blood agent, including hydrogen cyanide (AC), cyanogen chloride (CK) and arsine (SA).

(4)  A blister agent. This paragraph includes:

(i)  Mustard (H).

(ii)  Sulfur mustard (HD).

(iii)  HN-1.

(iv)  HN-2.

(v)  Nitrogen mustard (HN-3).

(vi)  An arsenical, such as lewisite (L).

(vii)  An urticant, such as CX.

(viii)  An incapacitating agent, such as B2.

(5)  Any other chemical element or compound which causes death or bodily harm.

"Nuclear agent."  A radioactive material.

"Weapon of mass destruction."  A biological agent, bomb, chemical agent or nuclear agent.

18c2716v

(June 28, 2002, P.L.481, No.82, eff. 60 days)

 

2002 Amendment.  Act 82 added section 2716.

Cross References.  Section 2716 is referred to in sections 5708, 6105 of this title; section 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2717s

§ 2717.  Terrorism.

(a)  General rule.--A person is guilty of terrorism if he commits a violent offense intending to do any of the following:

(1)  Intimidate or coerce a civilian population.

(2)  Influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion.

(3)  Affect the conduct of a government.

(b)  Grading and penalty.--

(1)  If the violent offense is a misdemeanor or a felony of the third or second degree, an offense under this section shall be classified one degree higher than the classification of the violent offense specified in section 106 (relating to classes of offenses).

(2)  If the violent offense is a felony of the first degree, a person convicted of an offense under this section shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment fixed by the court at not more than 40 years and may be sentenced to pay a fine of not more than $100,000.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Dangerous to human life or property."  A violent act or an act which is intended to or likely to cause death, serious bodily injury or mass destruction.

"Mass destruction."  An act which is intended to or likely to destroy or cause serious damage to transportation-related infrastructure or facilities, energy-related infrastructure or facilities, public or private buildings, places of public accommodation or public works under circumstances evincing depraved indifference to human life or property.

"Violent offense."  An offense under this part, including an attempt, conspiracy or solicitation to commit any such offense, which is punishable by imprisonment of more than one year and involves an act dangerous to human life or property.

18c2717v

(July 7, 2006, P.L.342, No.71, eff. 60 days)

 

2006 Amendment.  Act 71 added section 2717.

Cross References.  Section 2717 is referred to in sections 6801.1, 9714 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2901h

 

 

CHAPTER 29

KIDNAPPING

 

Sec.

2901.  Kidnapping.

2902.  Unlawful restraint.

2903.  False imprisonment.

2904.  Interference with custody of children.

2905.  Interference with custody of committed persons.

2906.  Criminal coercion.

2907.  Disposition of ransom.

2908.  Missing children.

2909.  Concealment of whereabouts of a child.

2910.  Luring a child into a motor vehicle or structure.

 

Enactment.  Chapter 29 was added December 6, 1972, P.L.1482, No.334, effective in six months.

Cross References.  Chapter 29 is referred to in section 911 of this title; section 5985.1 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2901s

§ 2901.  Kidnapping.

(a)  Offense defined.--Except as provided in subsection (a.1), a person is guilty of kidnapping if he unlawfully removes another a substantial distance under the circumstances from the place where he is found, or if he unlawfully confines another for a substantial period in a place of isolation, with any of the following intentions:

(1)  To hold for ransom or reward, or as a shield or hostage.

(2)  To facilitate commission of any felony or flight thereafter.

(3)  To inflict bodily injury on or to terrorize the victim or another.

(4)  To interfere with the performance by public officials of any governmental or political function.

(a.1)  Kidnapping of a minor.--A person is guilty of kidnapping of a minor if he unlawfully removes a person under 18 years of age a substantial distance under the circumstances from the place where he is found, or if he unlawfully confines a person under 18 years of age for a substantial period in a place of isolation, with any of the following intentions:

(1)  To hold for ransom or reward, or as a shield or hostage.

(2)  To facilitate commission of any felony or flight thereafter.

(3)  To inflict bodily injury on or to terrorize the victim or another.

(4)  To interfere with the performance by public officials of any governmental or political function.

(b)  Grading.--The following apply:

(1)  Kidnapping under subsection (a) is a felony of the first degree. A removal or confinement is unlawful within the meaning of subsection (a) if it is accomplished by force, threat or deception, or, in the case of an incapacitated person, if it is accomplished without the consent of a parent, guardian or other person responsible for general supervision of his welfare.

(2)  Kidnapping under subsection (a.1) is a felony of the first degree. A removal or confinement is unlawful within the meaning of subsection (a.1) if it is accomplished by force, threat or deception, or, in the case of a person under 14 years of age, if it is accomplished without consent of a parent, guardian or other person responsible for general supervision of his welfare.

18c2901v

(Apr. 16, 1992, P.L.108, No.24, eff. 60 days; Dec. 20, 2011, P.L.446, No.111, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2901 is referred to in sections 2709.1, 5702, 5708, 6105 of this title; section 3304 of Title 5 (Athletics and Sports); sections 5329, 6344, 6711 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 5552, 6302, 9720.2, 9799.14, 9802 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); sections 3903, 4103, 7122 of Title 61 (Prisons and Parole).

18c2902s

§ 2902.  Unlawful restraint.

(a)  Offense defined.--Except as provided under subsection (b) or (c), a person commits a misdemeanor of the first degree if he knowingly:

(1)  restrains another unlawfully in circumstances exposing him to risk of serious bodily injury; or

(2)  holds another in a condition of involuntary servitude.

(b)  Unlawful restraint of a minor where offender is not victim's parent.--If the victim is a person under 18 years of age, a person who is not the victim's parent commits a felony of the second degree if he knowingly:

(1)  restrains another unlawfully in circumstances exposing him to risk of serious bodily injury; or

(2)  holds another in a condition of involuntary servitude.

(c)  Unlawful restraint of minor where offender is victim's parent.--If the victim is a person under 18 years of age, a parent of the victim commits a felony of the second degree if he knowingly:

(1)  restrains another unlawfully in circumstances exposing him to risk of serious bodily injury; or

(2)  holds another in a condition of involuntary servitude.

(d)  Definition.--As used in this section the term "parent" means a natural parent, stepparent, adoptive parent or guardian of a minor.

18c2902v

(Dec. 30, 1974, P.L.1120, No.361, eff. imd.; Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.721, No.98, eff. imd.; Dec. 20, 2011, P.L.446, No.111, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2902 is referred to in section 6105 of this title; sections 5329, 6344 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 9799.13, 9799.14 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2903s

§ 2903.  False imprisonment.

(a)  Offense defined.--Except as provided under subsection (b) or (c), a person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree if he knowingly restrains another unlawfully so as to interfere substantially with his liberty.

(b)  False imprisonment of a minor where offender is not victim's parent.--If the victim is a person under 18 years of age, a person who is not the victim's parent commits a felony of the second degree if he knowingly restrains another unlawfully so as to interfere substantially with his liberty.

(c)  False imprisonment of a minor where offender is victim's parent.--If the victim is a person under 18 years of age, a parent of the victim commits a felony of the second degree if he knowingly restrains another unlawfully so as to interfere substantially with his liberty.

(d)  Definition.--As used in this section the term "parent" means a natural parent, stepparent, adoptive parent or guardian of a minor.

18c2903v

(Dec. 20, 2000, P.L.721, No.98, eff. imd.; Dec. 20, 2011, P.L.446, No.111, eff. 60 days)

 

2000 Amendment.  See the preamble to Act 98 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to legislative intent.

Cross References.  Section 2903 is referred to in sections 5329, 6102 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 9799.13, 9799.14 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2904s

§ 2904.  Interference with custody of children.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits an offense if he knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any child under the age of 18 years from the custody of its parent, guardian or other lawful custodian, when he has no privilege to do so.

(b)  Defenses.--It is a defense that:

(1)  the actor believed that his action was necessary to preserve the child from danger to its welfare; or

(2)  the child, being at the time not less than 14 years old, was taken away at its own instigation without enticement and without purpose to commit a criminal offense with or against the child; or

(3)  the actor is the child's parent or guardian or other lawful custodian and is not acting contrary to an order entered by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(c)  Grading.--The offense is a felony of the third degree unless:

(1)  the actor, not being a parent or person in equivalent relation to the child, acted with knowledge that his conduct would cause serious alarm for the safety of the child, or in reckless disregard of a likelihood of causing such alarm. In such cases, the offense shall be a felony of the second degree; or

(2)  the actor acted with good cause for a period of time not in excess of 24 hours; and

(i)  the victim child is the subject of a valid order of custody issued by a court of this Commonwealth;

(ii)  the actor has been given either partial custody or visitation rights under said order; and

(iii)  the actor is a resident of this Commonwealth and does not remove the child from the Commonwealth.

In such cases, the offense shall be a misdemeanor of the second degree.

18c2904v

(July 9, 1984, P.L.661, No.138, eff. imd.)

 

1984 Amendment.  Act 138 amended subsec. (c).

Cross References.  Section 2904 is referred to in section 6108 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); sections 9799.13, 9799.14 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c2905s

§ 2905.  Interference with custody of committed persons.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree if he knowingly or recklessly takes or entices any committed person away from lawful custody when he is not privileged to do so.

(b)  Definition.--As used in this section, the term "committed person" means, in addition to anyone committed under judicial warrant, any orphan, neglected or delinquent child, mentally disabled person, or other dependent or incapacitated person entrusted to the custody of another by or through a recognized social agency or otherwise by authority of law.

18c2905v

(Apr. 16, 1992, P.L.108, No.24, eff. 60 days)

 

1992 Amendment.  Act 24 amended subsec. (b).

18c2906s

§ 2906.  Criminal coercion.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person is guilty of criminal coercion, if, with intent unlawfully to restrict freedom of action of another to the detriment of the other, he threatens to:

(1)  commit any criminal offense;

(2)  accuse anyone of a criminal offense;

(3)  expose any secret tending to subject any person to hatred, contempt or ridicule; or

(4)  take or withhold action as an official, or cause an official to take or withhold action.

(b)  Defense.--It is a defense to prosecution based on paragraphs (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(4) of this section that the actor believed the accusation or secret to be true or the proposed official action justified and that his intent was limited to compelling the other to behave in a way reasonably related to the circumstances which were the subject of the accusation, exposure or proposed official action, as by desisting from further misbehavior, making good a wrong done, refraining from taking any action or responsibility for which the actor believes the other disqualified.

(c)  Grading.--Criminal coercion is a misdemeanor of the second degree unless the threat is to commit a felony or the intent of the actor is felonious, in which cases the offense is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

18c2906v

 

Cross References.  Section 2906 is referred to in section 3012 of this title.

18c2907s

§ 2907.  Disposition of ransom.

A person, other than a member of the family or an intermediary of the family of a person held for ransom, who knowingly receives, retains or disposes of any money or other property of another knowing that the money or other property constitutes a ransom derived from an offense under this chapter, or has reason to believe that such money or other property is ransom derived from an offense under this chapter, is guilty of a felony of the third degree.

18c2907v

(Dec. 30, 1974, P.L.1120, No.361, eff. imd.)

 

1974 Amendment.  Act 361 added section 2907.

18c2908s

§ 2908.  Missing children.

(a)  Duties of law enforcement agencies.--Law enforcement agencies shall have the following duties with respect to missing children:

(1)  To investigate a report of a missing child immediately upon receipt of the report regardless of the age of the missing child or the circumstances surrounding the disappearance of the child. In no case shall law enforcement agencies impose a mandatory waiting period prior to commencing the investigation of a missing child.

(2)  When conducting a missing child investigation, to record all information relevant to the missing child and the circumstances surrounding the disappearance of the missing child on the appropriate law enforcement investigative report.

(3)  To make an entry into the Missing Persons File through the Commonwealth Law Enforcement Assistance Network (CLEAN) in accord with Pennsylvania State Police policy and procedures immediately upon receipt of sufficient identification information on the missing child.

(3.1)  To make an entry into the Unidentified Persons File through Commonwealth Law Enforcement Assistance Network (CLEAN) in accord with Pennsylvania State Police policy and procedures immediately upon:

(i)  taking custody of an unidentified living child, such as an infant, or a physically or mentally disabled child; or

(ii)  discovering an unidentified deceased child.

(4)  To insure timely cancellation of any entry made pursuant to this section where the missing child has returned or is located.

(a.1)  Unidentified deceased children.--Law enforcement agencies and coroners shall, with respect to unidentified deceased children, have the duty to make an entry into the Unidentified Deceased Person File through the Commonwealth Law Enforcement Assistance Network (CLEAN) in accordance with Pennsylvania State Police policy and procedures immediately upon observing or receiving any descriptive information on an unidentified deceased child.

(b)  Definition.--As used in this section the term "child" means a person under 18 years of age.

18c2908v

(May 9, 1985, P.L.31, No.14, eff. imd.; Feb. 2, 1990, P.L.6, No.4, eff. 60 days; June 25, 1992, P.L.315, No.59, eff. 60 days)

 

1992 Amendment.  Act 59 added subsec. (a)(3.1).

1990 Amendment.  Act 4 added subsec. (a.1).

1985 Amendment.  Act 14 added section 2908.

18c2909s

§ 2909.  Concealment of whereabouts of a child.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person who removes a child from the child's known place of residence with the intent to conceal the child's whereabouts from the child's parent or guardian, unless concealment is authorized by court order or is a reasonable response to domestic violence or child abuse, commits a felony of the third degree. For purposes of this subsection, the term "removes" includes personally removing the child from the child's known place of residence, causing the child to be removed from the child's known place of residence, preventing the child from returning or being returned to the child's known place of residence and, when the child's parent or guardian has a reasonable expectation that the person will return the child, failing to return the child to the child's known place of residence.

(b)  Application.--A person may be convicted under subsection (a) if either of the following apply:

(1)  The acts that initiated the concealment occurred in this Commonwealth.

(2)  The offender or the parent or guardian from whom the child is being concealed resides in this Commonwealth.

18c2909v

(Feb. 2, 1990, P.L.6, No.4, eff. 60 days)

 

1990 Amendment.  Act 4 added section 2909.

18c2910s

§ 2910.  Luring a child into a motor vehicle or structure.

(a)  Offense.--Unless the circumstances reasonably indicate that the child is in need of assistance, a person who lures or attempts to lure a child into a motor vehicle or structure without the consent, express or implied, of the child's parent or guardian commits an offense.

(a.1)  Grading.--The following shall apply:

(1)  Except as provided under paragraph (2), an offense under subsection (a) is a misdemeanor of the first degree.

(2)  If an offense under subsection (a) involves a child under 13 years of age, the offense is a felony of the second degree.

(a.2)  Mistake as to age.--If an offense under subsection (a) involves a child under 13 years of age, it shall be no defense that the defendant did not know the age of the child or reasonably believed the child to be 13 years of age or older.

(b)  Affirmative defense.--It shall be an affirmative defense to a prosecution under this section that the person lured or attempted to lure the child into the structure for a lawful purpose.

(c)  Definitions.--As used in this section, the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Child."  A person under 18 years of age.

"Motor vehicle."  Every self-propelled device in, upon or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn on a public highway.

"Structure."  A house, apartment building, shop, warehouse, barn, building, vessel, railroad car, cargo container, house car, trailer, trailer coach, camper, mine, floating home or other enclosed structure capable of holding a child, which is not open to the general public.

18c2910v

(Feb. 2, 1990, P.L.6, No.4, eff. 60 days; Nov. 10, 2005, P.L.330, No.64, eff. 60 days; Dec. 18, 2013, P.L.1194, No.116, eff. 60 days)

 

Cross References.  Section 2910 is referred to in section 6105 of this title; section 5329 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 9799.14 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure); section 2303 of Title 44 (Law and Justice).

18c3001h

 

 

CHAPTER 30

HUMAN TRAFFICKING

 

Subchapter

A.  General Provisions

B.  Prosecution of Human Trafficking

C.  Prevention of Human Trafficking

D.  Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking

E.  Miscellaneous Provisions

 

Enactment.  Chapter 30 was added July 2, 2014, P.L.945, No.105, effective in 60 days.

Prior Provisions.  Former Chapter 30, which related to Trafficking of Persons, was added November 9, 2006, P.L.1340, No.139, and repealed July 2, 2014, P.L.945, No.105, effective in 60 days.

Special Provisions in Appendix.  See section 9 of Act 105 of 2014 in the appendix to this title for special provisions relating to application of law.

Cross References.  Chapter 30 is referred to in section 911 of this title.

 

 

SUBCHAPTER A

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Sec.

3001.  Definitions.

18c3001s

§ 3001.  Definitions.

The following words and phrases when used in this chapter shall have the meanings given to them in this section unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Commission."  The Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency.

"Debt coercion."  Exploitation of the status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of the personal services of the debtor or an individual under the debtor's control as a security or payment for debt, if any of the following apply:

(1)  The value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt.

(2)  The length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

(3)  The principal amount of the debt does not reasonably reflect the value of the items or services for which the debt was incurred.

(4)  The debtor is coerced to perform sex acts as payment for the debt.

(5)  The creditor controls and determines the movement, housing and services performed by the debtor until repayment of the debt.

"Extortion."  As defined in section 3923 (relating to theft by extortion).

"Financial harm."  Includes any of the following:

(1)  A violation of the act of March 30, 1859 (P.L.318, No.318), entitled "An act for the better securing the Payment of the Wages of Labor in certain counties of this Commonwealth."

(2)  A violation of the act of May 23, 1887 (P.L.181, No.122), entitled "An act to regulate the employment of labor."

(3)  A criminal violation of the act of January 30, 1974 (P.L.13, No.6), referred to as the Loan Interest and Protection Law (Usury Law).

(4)  A violation of Chapter 2 of the act of June 23, 1978 (P.L.537, No.93), known as the Seasonal Farm Labor Act.

(5)  A violation of any other law of this Commonwealth governing the payment of wages for labor or services.

"Human trafficking."  Any activity in violation of section 3011 (relating to trafficking in individuals) either alone or in conjunction with an activity in violation of section 3012 (relating to involuntary servitude).

"Involuntary servitude."  Labor servitude or sexual servitude.

"Labor."  Work or service of economic or financial value.

"Labor servitude."  Labor which is performed or provided by another individual and is induced or obtained by any of the means set forth in section 3012(b).

"Minor."  An individual who is less than 18 years of age.

"Record."  Information, regardless of physical form or characteristics, that documents a transaction or activity and that is created, received or retained under law or in connection with a transaction, business or activity. The term includes any of the following:

(1)  A document, paper, letter, map, book, tape, photograph, film or sound recording.

(2)  Information stored or maintained electronically.

(3)  A data-processed or image-processed document.

"Serious harm."  Any harm, whether physical or nonphysical, that is sufficiently serious, under all the surrounding circumstances, to compel a reasonable person of the same background and in the same circumstances as the victim of human trafficking to perform or to continue performing labor or a service, a commercial sex act or a performance involving sex acts in order to avoid incurring that harm.

"Service."  Any act committed at the behest of, under the supervision of or for the benefit of another.

"Sex act."  Any touching or exposure of the sexual or other intimate parts of any individual for the purpose of gratifying sexual desire of any individual.

"Sexual servitude."  Any sex act or performance involving a sex act for which anything of value is directly or indirectly given, promised to or received by any individual or which is performed or provided by any individual and is induced or obtained from:

(1)  A minor.

(2)  Any other individual by any of the means set forth in section 3012(b).

"Victim of human trafficking" or "victim."  An individual who has been subjected to human trafficking.

18c3001v

 

Cross References.  Section 3001 is referred to in sections 5945.3, 9738 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c3011h

 

 

SUBCHAPTER B

PROSECUTION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

 

Sec.

3011.  Trafficking in individuals.

3012.  Involuntary servitude.

3013.  Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude.

3014.  Unlawful conduct regarding documents.

3015.  Nonpayment of wages.

3016.  Obstruction of justice.

3017.  Violation by business entities.

3018.  Evidence and defenses to human trafficking.

3019.  Victim protection during prosecution.

3020.  Restitution.

3021.  Asset forfeiture.

3022.  Professional licenses.

3023.  Cumulative remedies.

3024.  Sentencing.

3025.  Data collection.

18c3011s

§ 3011.  Trafficking in individuals.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a felony of the second degree if the person:

(1)  recruits, entices, solicits, harbors, transports, provides, obtains or maintains an individual if the person knows or recklessly disregards that the individual will be subject to involuntary servitude; or

(2)  knowingly benefits financially or receives anything of value from any act that facilitates any activity described in paragraph (1).

(b)  Trafficking in minors.--A person commits a felony of the first degree if the person engages in any activity listed in subsection (a) that results in a minor's being subjected to sexual servitude.

18c3011v

 

Cross References.  Section 3011 is referred to in sections 3001, 3021, 5708 of this title; sections 5552, 9720.2, 9799.14 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c3012s

§ 3012.  Involuntary servitude.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a felony of the first degree if the person knowingly, through any of the means described in subsection (b), subjects an individual to labor servitude or sexual servitude, except where the conduct is permissible under Federal or State law other than this chapter.

(b)  Means of subjecting an individual to involuntary servitude.--A person may subject an individual to involuntary servitude through any of the following means:

(1)  Causing or threatening to cause serious harm to any individual.

(2)  Physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain another individual.

(3)  Kidnapping or attempting to kidnap any individual.

(4)  Abusing or threatening to abuse the legal process.

(5)  Taking or retaining the individual's personal property or real property as a means of coercion.

(6)  Engaging in unlawful conduct with respect to documents, as defined in section 3014 (relating to unlawful conduct regarding documents).

(7)  Extortion.

(8)  Fraud.

(9)  Criminal coercion, as defined in section 2906 (relating to criminal coercion).

(10)  Duress, through the use of or threat to use unlawful force against the person or another.

(11)  Debt coercion.

(12)  Facilitating or controlling the individual's access to a controlled substance.

(13)  Using any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause the individual to believe that, if the individual does not perform the labor, services, acts or performances, that individual or another individual will suffer serious harm or physical restraint.

18c3012v

 

Cross References.  Section 3012 is referred to in sections 3001, 3018, 3021, 5708 of this title; sections 5552, 9720.2 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).

18c3013s

§ 3013.  Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude.

(a)  Offense defined.--A person commits a felony of the second degree if the person engages in any sex act or performance with another individual knowing that the act or performance is the result of the individual being a victim of human trafficking.

(b)  Investigation.--An individual arrested for a violation of section 5902(e) (relating to prostitution and related offenses) may be formally detained and questioned by law enforcement personnel to determine if the individual engaged in any sex act or performance with the alleged prostitute knowing that the individual is a victim of human trafficking.