CONSTITUTION
                                  of the
                       COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

     Article
            Preamble
        I.  Declaration of Rights
       II.  The Legislature
      III.  Legislation
       IV.  The Executive
        V.  The Judiciary
            Schedule to Judiciary Article
       VI.  Public Officers
      VII.  Elections
     VIII.  Taxation and Finance
       IX.  Local Government
        X.  Private Corporations
       XI.  Amendments
            Schedule No. 1 (Adopted with the Constitution)
            Schedule No. 2 (Amendments of November 2, 1909)

        Constitution of 1874.  The Constitution of 1874 was adopted
     November 3, 1873, by a Constitutional Convention which was
     called pursuant to the act of April 11, 1872 (P.L.53, No.42).
     The Constitution was ratified at a special election held
     December 16, 1873, and went into effect January 1, 1874. This
     Constitution was amended in 1901, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918,
     1920, 1922, 1923, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1943, 1945, 1949, 1951,
     1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1963 and 1965. By
     statute, 1 Pa.C.S. § 906, the Constitution, as adopted by
     referendum of December 16, 1873, shall be known and may be cited
     as the Constitution of 1874.
        Constitution of 1968.  The Constitution of 1874 was modified
     and renumbered by extensive amendments on May 17, 1966, November
     8, 1966, and May 16, 1967; and by proclamation of the Governor
     of July 7, 1967, P.L.1063, pursuant to the act of August 17,
     1965 (P.L.345, No.180). Proposals 1 through 7 to amend the
     Constitution were recommended by a Constitutional Convention
     which was called pursuant to the act of March 15, 1967 (P.L.2,
     No.2). The proposals were approved by the electorate on April
     23, 1968. By statute, 1 Pa.C.S. § 906, the Constitution, as
     amended by referenda of May 17, 1966, November 8, 1966, May 16,
     1967, and April 23, 1968, and as numbered by proclamation of the
     Governor of July 7, 1967, shall be known and may be cited as the
     Constitution of 1968.
        Section Headings.  Section headings were not contained in the
     Constitution as adopted by referendum of December 16, 1873, but
     were either added by various constitutional amendments or
     promulgated on June 11, 1974, P.L.1573, by the Director of the
     Legislative Reference Bureau with the approval of the Attorney
     General under statutory authority contained in 1 Pa.C.S. § 905.
        Explanation of Amendment Notes.  Unless otherwise noted,
     amendments are referred to by date of adoption by the electorate
     together with a reference to the applicable joint resolution
     (J.R.) or, in rare cases, concurrent resolution (C.R.) adopted
     by the General Assembly and the page in the Laws of Pennsylvania
     (P.L.) in which the joint resolution or concurrent resolution
     was published.

                                 PREAMBLE

     WE, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to
        Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious
        liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and
        establish this Constitution.

                                ARTICLE I
                          DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

     Sec.
      1.  Inherent rights of mankind.
      2.  Political powers.
      3.  Religious freedom.
      4.  Religion.
      5.  Elections.
      6.  Trial by jury.
      7.  Freedom of press and speech; libels.
      8.  Security from searches and seizures.
      9.  Rights of accused in criminal prosecutions.
     10.  Initiation of criminal proceedings; twice in jeopardy;
            eminent domain.
     11.  Courts to be open; suits against the Commonwealth.
     12.  Power of suspending laws.
     13.  Bail, fines and punishments.
     14.  Prisoners to be bailable; habeas corpus.
     15.  Special criminal tribunals.
     16.  Insolvent debtors.
     17.  Ex post facto laws; impairment of contracts.
     18.  Attainder.
     19.  Attainder limited.
     20.  Right of petition.
     21.  Right to bear arms.
     22.  Standing army; military subordinate to civil power.
     23.  Quartering of troops.
     24.  Titles and offices.
     25.  Reservation of powers in people.
     26.  No discrimination by Commonwealth and its
            political subdivisions.
     27.  Natural resources and the public estate.
     28.  Prohibition against denial or abridgment of equality of
            rights because of sex.

        Adoption.  Unless otherwise noted, the provisions of Article
     I were adopted December 16, 1873, 1874 P.L.3, effective January
     1, 1874.

     That the general, great and essential principles of liberty and
        free government may be recognized and unalterably
        established, WE DECLARE THAT--
     § 1.  Inherent rights of mankind.
        All men are born equally free and independent, and have
     certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those
     of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquiring,
     possessing and protecting property and reputation, and of
     pursuing their own happiness.