CONSTITUTION
                                  of the
                       COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA

     Article
            Preamble
        I.  Declaration of Rights
       II.  The Legislature
      III.  Legislation
       IV.  The Executive
        V.  The Judiciary
            Schedule to Judiciary Article
       VI.  Public Officers
      VII.  Elections
     VIII.  Taxation and Finance
       IX.  Local Government
        X.  Private Corporations
       XI.  Amendments
            Schedule No. 1 (Adopted with the Constitution)
            Schedule No. 2 (Amendments of November 2, 1909)

        Constitution of 1874.  The Constitution of 1874 was adopted
     November 3, 1873, by a Constitutional Convention which was
     called pursuant to the act of April 11, 1872 (P.L.53, No.42).
     The Constitution was ratified at a special election held
     December 16, 1873, and went into effect January 1, 1874. This
     Constitution was amended in 1901, 1909, 1911, 1913, 1915, 1918,
     1920, 1922, 1923, 1928, 1933, 1937, 1943, 1945, 1949, 1951,
     1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1963 and 1965. By
     statute, 1 Pa.C.S. § 906, the Constitution, as adopted by
     referendum of December 16, 1873, shall be known and may be cited
     as the Constitution of 1874.
        Constitution of 1968.  The Constitution of 1874 was modified
     and renumbered by extensive amendments on May 17, 1966, November
     8, 1966, and May 16, 1967; and by proclamation of the Governor
     of July 7, 1967, P.L.1063, pursuant to the act of August 17,
     1965 (P.L.345, No.180). Proposals 1 through 7 to amend the
     Constitution were recommended by a Constitutional Convention
     which was called pursuant to the act of March 15, 1967 (P.L.2,
     No.2). The proposals were approved by the electorate on April
     23, 1968. By statute, 1 Pa.C.S. § 906, the Constitution, as
     amended by referenda of May 17, 1966, November 8, 1966, May 16,
     1967, and April 23, 1968, and as numbered by proclamation of the
     Governor of July 7, 1967, shall be known and may be cited as the
     Constitution of 1968.
        Section Headings.  Section headings were not contained in the
     Constitution as adopted by referendum of December 16, 1873, but
     were either added by various constitutional amendments or
     promulgated on June 11, 1974, P.L.1573, by the Director of the
     Legislative Reference Bureau with the approval of the Attorney
     General under statutory authority contained in 1 Pa.C.S. § 905.
        Explanation of Amendment Notes.  Unless otherwise noted,
     amendments are referred to by date of adoption by the electorate
     together with a reference to the applicable joint resolution
     (J.R.) or, in rare cases, concurrent resolution (C.R.) adopted
     by the General Assembly and the page in the Laws of Pennsylvania
     (P.L.) in which the joint resolution or concurrent resolution
     was published.

                                 PREAMBLE

     WE, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to
        Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious
        liberty, and humbly invoking His guidance, do ordain and
        establish this Constitution.

                                ARTICLE I
                          DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

     Sec.
      1.  Inherent rights of mankind.
      2.  Political powers.
      3.  Religious freedom.
      4.  Religion.
      5.  Elections.
      6.  Trial by jury.
      7.  Freedom of press and speech; libels.
      8.  Security from searches and seizures.
      9.  Rights of accused in criminal prosecutions.
     10.  Initiation of criminal proceedings; twice in jeopardy;
            eminent domain.
     11.  Courts to be open; suits against the Commonwealth.
     12.  Power of suspending laws.
     13.  Bail, fines and punishments.
     14.  Prisoners to be bailable; habeas corpus.
     15.  Special criminal tribunals.
     16.  Insolvent debtors.
     17.  Ex post facto laws; impairment of contracts.
     18.  Attainder.
     19.  Attainder limited.
     20.  Right of petition.
     21.  Right to bear arms.
     22.  Standing army; military subordinate to civil power.
     23.  Quartering of troops.
     24.  Titles and offices.
     25.  Reservation of powers in people.
     26.  No discrimination by Commonwealth and its
            political subdivisions.
     27.  Natural resources and the public estate.
     28.  Prohibition against denial or abridgment of equality of
            rights because of sex.

        Adoption.  Unless otherwise noted, the provisions of Article
     I were adopted December 16, 1873, 1874 P.L.3, effective January
     1, 1874.

     That the general, great and essential principles of liberty and
        free government may be recognized and unalterably
        established, WE DECLARE THAT--
     § 1.  Inherent rights of mankind.
        All men are born equally free and independent, and have
     certain inherent and indefeasible rights, among which are those
     of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of acquiring,
     possessing and protecting property and reputation, and of
     pursuing their own happiness.
     § 2.  Political powers.
        All power is inherent in the people, and all free governments
     are founded on their authority and instituted for their peace,
     safety and happiness. For the advancement of these ends they
     have at all times an inalienable and indefeasible right to
     alter, reform or abolish their government in such manner as they
     may think proper.
     § 3.  Religious freedom.
        All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship
     Almighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences;
     no man can of right be compelled to attend, erect or support any
     place of worship, or to maintain any ministry against his
     consent; no human authority can, in any case whatever, control
     or interfere with the rights of conscience, and no preference
     shall ever be given by law to any religious establishments or
     modes of worship.
     § 4.  Religion.
        No person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future
     state of rewards and punishments shall, on account of his
     religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or
     place of trust or profit under this Commonwealth.
     § 5.  Elections.
        Elections shall be free and equal; and no power, civil or
     military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free
     exercise of the right of suffrage.
     § 6.  Trial by jury.
        Trial by jury shall be as heretofore, and the right thereof
     remain inviolate. The General Assembly may provide, however, by
     law, that a verdict may be rendered by not less than five-sixths
     of the jury in any civil case. Furthermore, in criminal cases
     the Commonwealth shall have the same right to trial by jury as
     does the accused.
     (May 18, 1971, P.L.765, J.R.1; Nov. 3, 1998, P.L.1328, J.R.2)
     § 7.  Freedom of press and speech; libels.
        The printing press shall be free to every person who may
     undertake to examine the proceedings of the Legislature or any
     branch of government, and no law shall ever be made to restrain
     the right thereof. The free communication of thoughts and
     opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and every
     citizen may freely speak, write and print on any subject, being
     responsible for the abuse of that liberty. No conviction shall
     be had in any prosecution for the publication of papers relating
     to the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity,
     or to any other matter proper for public investigation or
     information, where the fact that such publication was not
     maliciously or negligently made shall be established to the
     satisfaction of the jury; and in all indictments for libels the
     jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts,
     under the direction of the court, as in other cases.

        Constitutionality.  The provisions of section 7 relating to
     criminal libel were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme
     Court of Pennsylvania in Commonwealth v. Armao, 446 Pa. 325, 286
     A.2d 626 (1972).
     § 8.  Security from searches and seizures.
        The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers
     and possessions from unreasonable searches and seizures, and no
     warrant to search any place or to seize any person or things
     shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor
     without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation
     subscribed to by the affiant.
     § 9.  Rights of accused in criminal prosecutions.
        In all criminal prosecutions the accused hath a right to be
     heard by himself and his counsel, to demand the nature and cause
     of the accusation against him, to be confronted with the
     witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining
     witnesses in his favor, and, in prosecutions by indictment or
     information, a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the
     vicinage; he cannot be compelled to give evidence against
     himself, nor can he be deprived of his life, liberty or
     property, unless by the judgment of his peers or the law of the
     land. The use of a suppressed voluntary admission or voluntary
     confession to impeach the credibility of a person may be
     permitted and shall not be construed as compelling a person to
     give evidence against himself.
     (Nov. 6, 1984, P.L.1306, J.R.2; Nov. 7, 1995, 1st Sp.Sess.,
     P.L.1151, J.R.1; Nov. 4, 2003, P.L.  , J.R.1)
     § 10.  Initiation of criminal proceedings; twice in jeopardy;
            eminent domain.
        Except as hereinafter provided no person shall, for any
     indictable offense, be proceeded against criminally by
     information, except in cases arising in the land or naval
     forces, or in the militia, when in actual service, in time of
     war or public danger, or by leave of the court for oppression or
     misdemeanor in office. Each of the several courts of common
     pleas may, with the approval of the Supreme Court, provide for
     the initiation of criminal proceedings therein by information
     filed in the manner provided by law. No person shall, for the
     same offense, be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor
     shall private property be taken or applied to public use,
     without authority of law and without just compensation being
     first made or secured.
     (Nov. 6, 1973, P.L.452, J.R.2)
     § 11.  Courts to be open; suits against the Commonwealth.
        All courts shall be open; and every man for an injury done
     him in his lands, goods, person or reputation shall have remedy
     by due course of law, and right and justice administered without
     sale, denial or delay. Suits may be brought against the
     Commonwealth in such manner, in such courts and in such cases as
     the Legislature may by law direct.
     § 12.  Power of suspending laws.
        No power of suspending laws shall be exercised unless by the
     Legislature or by its authority.
     § 13.  Bail, fines and punishments.
        Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
     imposed, nor cruel punishments inflicted.
     § 14.  Prisoners to be bailable; habeas corpus.
        All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties,
     unless for capital offenses or for offenses for which the
     maximum sentence is life imprisonment or unless no condition or
     combination of conditions other than imprisonment will
     reasonably assure the safety of any person and the community
     when the proof is evident or presumption great; and the
     privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
     unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety
     may require it.
     (Nov. 3, 1998, P.L.1327, J.R.1)
     § 15.  Special criminal tribunals.
        No commission shall issue creating special temporary criminal
     tribunals to try particular individuals or particular classes of
     cases.
     (May 16, 1967, P.L.1035, J.R.1)
     § 16.  Insolvent debtors.
        The person of a debtor, where there is not strong presumption
     of fraud, shall not be continued in prison after delivering up
     his estate for the benefit of his creditors in such manner as
     shall be prescribed by law.
     § 17.  Ex post facto laws; impairment of contracts.
        No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of
     contracts, or making irrevocable any grant of special privileges
     or immunities, shall be passed.
     § 18.  Attainder.
        No person shall be attainted of treason or felony by the
     Legislature.
     § 19.  Attainder limited.
        No attainder shall work corruption of blood, nor, except
     during the life of the offender, forfeiture of estate to the
     Commonwealth.
     (May 16, 1967, P.L.1035, J.R.1)
     § 20.  Right of petition.
        The citizens have a right in a peaceable manner to assemble
     together for their common good, and to apply to those invested
     with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other
     proper purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.
     § 21.  Right to bear arms.
        The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of
     themselves and the State shall not be questioned.
     § 22.  Standing army; military subordinate to civil power.
        No standing army shall, in time of peace, be kept up without
     the consent of the Legislature, and the military shall in all
     cases and at all times be in strict subordination to the civil
     power.
     § 23.  Quartering of troops.
        No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house
     without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a
     manner to be prescribed by law.
     § 24.  Titles and offices.
        The Legislature shall not grant any title of nobility or
     hereditary distinction, nor create any office the appointment to
     which shall be for a longer term than during good behavior.
     § 25.  Reservation of powers in people.
        To guard against transgressions of the high powers which we
     have delegated, we declare that everything in this article is
     excepted out of the general powers of government and shall
     forever remain inviolate.
     (May 16, 1967, P.L.1035, J.R.1)

        1967 Amendment.  Joint Resolution No.1 repealed former
     section 25 and renumbered former section 26 to present section
     25.
     § 26.  No discrimination by Commonwealth and its political
            subdivisions.
        Neither the Commonwealth nor any political subdivision
     thereof shall deny to any person the enjoyment of any civil
     right, nor discriminate against any person in the exercise of
     any civil right.
     (May 16, 1967, P.L.1035, J.R.1)

        1967 Amendment.  Joint Resolution No.1 added present section
     26 and renumbered former section 26 to present section 25.
     § 27.  Natural resources and the public estate.
        The people have a right to clean air, pure water, and to the
     preservation of the natural, scenic, historic and esthetic
     values of the environment. Pennsylvania's public natural
     resources are the common property of all the people, including
     generations yet to come. As trustee of these resources, the
     Commonwealth shall conserve and maintain them for the benefit of
     all the people.
     (May 18, 1971, P.L.769, J.R.3)

        1971 Amendment.  Joint Resolution No.3 added section 27.
     § 28.  Prohibition against denial or abridgment of equality of
            rights because of sex.
        Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or
     abridged in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania because of the sex
     of the individual.
     (May 18, 1971, P.L.767, J.R.2)

        1971 Amendment.  Joint Resolution No.2 added section 28.